Understanding Integrated Circuit (IC)

Integrated Circuit (IC) is an electronic component made of semi-conductor material, where IC is a combination of several components such as resistors, capacitors, diodes and transistors that have been integrated into a small chip-shaped circuit, IC is used for several purposes of making electronic equipment so that easily assembled into relatively small equipment.

Advantages of IC(Advantages)

IC has been widely used in various fields, one of which is in the aerospace industry, where the electronic control circuit will be more compact and smaller so that it can reduce the weight of satellites, missiles and other types of spacecraft. Very complex computer designs can be simplified, so that the number of components can be reduced and the size of the motherboard can be reduced. Another example is IC used in electronic calculating machines (calculators), as well as cellular phones (cell phones) which are relatively small.

In today’s era of advanced technology, electronic equipment is required to have the lightest and smallest possible size and weight, and this can be made possible by the use of ICs.

In addition to the size and weight of the IC which is small and light, the IC also provides other advantages, namely when compared to conventional circuits that use a lot of components, ICs with relatively small circuits only consume a small amount of energy and do not cause excessive heat so they do not require cooling. systems).

Weaknesses of IC (Disanvantages)

In the previous description it seems as if the IC is so perfect compared to conventional electronic components, even though there is no component that does not have weaknesses.

The weakness of the IC, among others, is its limitations in dealing with large excess currents, where excessive electric current can cause heat inside the components, so that small components such as ICs will be easily damaged if excessive heat arises.

Likewise, the limitations of ICs in dealing with large voltages, where large voltages can damage the insulating layer between components inside the IC. Examples of damage for example, there is a short circuit between components in the IC, if this happens, the IC can be damaged and become damaged. useless.

IC Packaging (Packages)

Judging from the manufacturing technique and the raw materials used, there are 4 (four) types of IC, namely: Monolithic, Thin film, and Hybrid types. Especially for the hybrid type, which is a combination of thin-film, monolithic and thick-film.

Regardless of the manufacturing technique and materials used, the four types of ICs are wrapped in certain packages so that they can be protected from outside interference, such as against moisture, dust, and contamination of other substances.

IC packaging is made of ceramic and plastic materials, and is designed for easy installation and connection. There are various types of IC packaging and the most popular and commonly used include:

-DIP(Duel in-line Packages) -SIP(Single in-line Packages) -QIP(Quad in-line Packages) -SOP(Small Outline Packages) -Flat Packs -TO-5, TO-72,TO-202 dan TO-220 style Packages

TTL (Transistor Transistor Logic)

The most widely used ICs today are digital ICs used for computer equipment, calculators and electronic control systems. Digital ICs work on the basis of the operation of Binary Logic numbers (base number 2), which only recognizes two conditions, 1 (on) and 0 (off).

There are 2 types of digital ICs, namely TTL and CMOS. This type of IC-TTL is built using a transistor as its main component and its function is used for various variations of logic, so it is called a transistor.

Transistor Logic

In one IC package there are several kinds of gates that can perform various logic functions such as AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR and several other logic functions such as Decoder, Encoder, Multiflexer and Memory so that the IC pins are numerous and varies there are 8,14,16,24 and 40.

The picture shows an IC with a NAND gate that outputs 0 or 1 depending on the condition of the two inputs.

TTL IC can work with a given voltage of 5 Volts.

IC-CMOS

In addition to TTL, another type of digital IC is C-MOS (Complementary with MOSFET) which contains a circuit which is a combination of several MOSFET components to form gates with logic functions such as IC-TTL. In one package, the C-MOS IC can contain several kinds of gates that can perform various logic functions such as AND, NAND, OR, NOR, XOR as well as several other logic functions such as Decoders, Encoders, Multiflexers and Memory.

The picture shows an IC with a NOR gate that outputs 0 or 1 depending on the condition of the two inputs.

C-MOS IC can work with 12 Volt voltage.

Linear ICs (Linear IC’s)

The main difference between Linear ICs and Digital ICs is their function, where digital ICs operate using a square signal which has only two conditions, namely 0 or 1 and functions as a switch, while linear ICs generally use a sinusoidal signal and function as an amplifier. amplifier). Linear ICs do not perform logical functions like IC-TTL or C-MOS and the most popular linear ICs are designed to work as voltage amplifiers.

In the linear IC packaging there is a linear circuit, where the work of the circuit will be proportional or will issue an output that is proportional to the input. One example of a linear IC is the type of Op-Amp.

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