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Supporting Articles: Definition, Functions, and Theories of PERS

The press in Indonesia began with the establishment of the ANTARA news agency, which was established on December 13, 1937 as a news agency for the struggle for the struggle for Indonesian independence. Indonesia began to develop the press in the publication of the first newspaper, Bataviasche Novelles en Politique Raisonemnetan, which was published on August 7, 1774. Then came followers in the form of Malay newspapers, including Slompet Melajoe, Bintang Soerabaja (1861) and Medan Prijaji (1907). In 1912, the oldest magazine in Indonesia was published, namely Panji Islam. Then, the first Chinese published newspapers that first appeared were Li Po (1901) and then Sin Po (1910). The first newspaper in Indonesia to broadcast the text of the Proclamation of Independence on August 17, 1945, on August 18, 1945 was the Soeara Asia newspaper.

It does not stop there, the National newspapers that contain the text of the proclamation are Tjahaja (Bandung), Asia Raja (Jakarta) and Asia Baroe (Semarang).

In general, all over the world there is a pattern of government policies towards the authoritarian and democratic press. Between the two there are variations and combinations, depending on the level of development of each country. Some are quasi-authoritarian, some are quasi-democratic and so on.

Press freedom is part of human rights. Article 28 of the 1945 Constitution reads: “Everyone has the right to communicate and obtain information to develop their personal and social environment, and has the right to seek, obtain, possess, store, process, and convey information using all available channels.”
A free press is one of the most essential components of a democratic society, as a prerequisite for good social and economic development. Although the press in various countries is given freedom and has become more professional, in various parts of the world today journalists still face intimidation, violence, exile, exile, imprisonment, even the death penalty or murder.
Indonesia experienced government restraint on the press starting in 1846, when the Dutch colonial government required a permit or censorship of press publications in Batavia, Semarang and Surabaya.

Since then until now, opinions on press freedom have been divided. One side rejects the issuance of licenses, censorship, and bans, but on the other side says that control over the press is necessary.
The New Order era, bans, censorship, and the need for issuance of permits which were officially prohibited by the Basic Press Law (Articles 4 and 8, Paragraph 2), continued to occur on the basis of Permenpen 01/1984 Article 33h which presented a Press Publishing Business License (SIUPP). ). The concept of the Pancasila Press, the Development Press, and the partnership press (press, government and society), make the press totally subservient to power. With the definition of “a free and responsible press”, SIUPP is an institution that issues press and bans.

The banning of Tempo, Detik, Editor on June 21, 1994, indicates the inability of the legal system of the press to develop the concept of a press that is free and legally responsible. The history of the three media follows the history of Focus, Sinar Harapan, Prioritas, and Monitor, all of which were banned without trial.
The change of power in 1998, from the New Order to the Reform Order, made the press find its independence.

Minister of Information at the time, Yunus Yosfiah: press freedom is an embodiment of the participation of citizens in exercising state power. SIUPP is no longer required.
Since 1998, the Indonesian press has been able to report the news transparently without worrying that the SIUPP will be revoked.

There is no need to be afraid anymore to present controversial figures who are suing or opposing the government.

There is no need to hesitate to present news or reports that were previously considered risky. With the abolition of the SIUPP institution, several media that had been “dead” have now come back to life, such as Tempo Weekly News Magazine and Sinar Harapan Daily. Even if you do not revive the “dead”, with all its conveniences, it is now easy to find newspapers, magazines, radio and television news as well as new online news sites.
Law (UU) No 40/1999 on the Press states, “Freedom of the press is a form of popular sovereignty based on the principles of democracy, justice and the rule of law”.
Freedom of the press is carried out within the framework of morals, ethics and law.
Freedom of the press is freedom accompanied by awareness of the importance of upholding the rule of law carried out by the courts, and professional responsibilities as outlined in the Indonesian Journalist Code of Ethics (KEWI), in accordance with the conscience of the press.

Today freedom is very advanced. But there are other pressures that arise, namely the market and media conglomeration.

Media entrepreneurs join hands with the authorities, not only in terms of wanting to be safe but also developing the market.

Threats to press freedom can also arise from the media owners, for example for business reasons. According to a survey by the National Democratic Institute, nearly 95 percent of all political information obtained by Indonesians – with the exception of Maluku and Papua – comes from newspapers and television stations whose shareholders are in Jakarta.
The press is not solely the interest of the press (again: press freedom is not solely the interest of the press), but the public interest. However, because it is impossible for the public to directly access information, the press is needed as an “extension” or “mouthpiece.”
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