It can be said that the neolithic is a very big revolution in human civilization. This major change was marked by the changing of the food-gathering civilization of life into food-producing. At the time people were familiar with farming and raising livestock. At first the agriculture they held was primitive and only carried out on dry lands. Trees from some parts of the forest are peeled off and then burned. Newly cleared lands for such agriculture are cultivated several times in succession and are subsequently abandoned.
Neolithic Indonesians formed communities with their huts in the shape of a rectangle and erected on wooden poles, the walls were decorated with beautiful decorative decorations, although their tools were still made of stone, but the tools were finely made, even had been polished on both sides of the face.
Way of life
The way of life of the Neolithic era brought great changes, because at that time humans began to live in groups and then settled and lived together in villages. Means the formation of a society that requires all the rules of cooperation. The division of labor allows the development of various kinds and ways of living within the cooperative bond. It can be said that in the Neolithic era there were the first foundations for human life as humans, as we get today.
Neolithic Age Tools
In the Neolithic era, tools were made of crushed stone.
The area of origin of this rectangular carving culture includes Central and South China, the Back Indies area to the Ganges river area in India, then most of Indonesia, the Philippines, Formosa, the Kuril Islands and Japan.
The origins of the spread of the square ax through an Asian migration to Indonesia. The name square ax was given by Van Heine Heldern on the basis of its rectangular or trapezoidal cross-section. The cross-section of the square ax is available in various sizes, there are large and small. The large size is commonly called a pickaxe and functions as a hoe/hoe. While the small size is called Tarah / Tatah and its function is as a chisel / tool for working wood as usual chisels.
The material for making the ax is not only ordinary stone, it is also made of flint/chalcedon. Most likely the ax made of chalcedony was only used as a tool for religious ceremonies, amulets or a sign of greatness. This type of ax is found in Sumatra, Java, Bali, Nusa Tenggara, Maluku, Sulawesi and Kalimantan.
Most of the oval axes were made of river stone, and they were blackish in color. The overall shape of the ax is ovoid with a sharp end where the handle is held, while the other end is sharpened until it is sharp. For this reason, the overall shape of the oval surface of the ax has been finely honed.
The size of the large oval ax is commonly called Walzenbeil and the small one is called Kleinbeil, while the function of the oval ax is the same as the square ax. The distribution areas for oval axes are Minahasa, Gerong, Seram, Leti, Tanimbar and Irian. From Irian the oval ax spread widely to the Melanesian Islands, so that archaeologists mention another term for the oval ax as Neolithikum Papua.
This type of ax is almost the same as a square ax, it’s just that the part that is tied to the stem is given a neck. So that it resembles the shape of a square bottle. This shoulder ax culture area extends from Japan, Formosa, the Philippines to the west to the Ganges river. But strangely its southern boundary is the central part of West Malaysia. In other words, to the south of this boundary no shoulder axes were found, so the Indonesian neolithic did not recognize them, although there were also some found in Minahasa.
Jewellery (beautiful stone bracelet and necklace)
This type of jewelry is often found in Java, especially bracelets from beautiful stones in large quantities, although many are not yet finished. The main material for making this object is drilled with a wooden drill and as an abrasive tool using sand. Apart from bracelets, other jewelry tools such as necklaces were also made from beautiful stones. For this necklace, painted stones or agate are also used.
At this time they have been able to make clothes from simple bark that has been refined. The work of making these clothes is the work of women. The work is also accompanied by various prohibitions or taboos that must be obeyed. For example, in Kalimantan and South Sulawesi and several other places, bark bats were found. This shows that the people of the Neolithic era were already dressed.
pottery (Crock pot)
The first traces of pottery or pots were found in the upper layers of the clam hills in Sumatra, but only very small fragments were found. Although the shape is only in the form of small fragments, it is decorated with pictures.
In Melolo, Sumba, many pots were found which turned out to contain human bones.