The tradition of weddings according to Minangkabau customs, which usually go through a number of processions, is still upheld to be carried out, which involves the large families of the two prospective brides, especially from the family of the woman.
Marriage procedures in West Sumatra vary widely between one customary luhak and another. Even between the same nagari in the same customary luhak, the procedure is different. However, over time, especially for Minang residents in the overseas, the urang-urang crew are now willing to accept the procedures from the nagari and other Minang customary luhaks, which are considered quite good and interesting to carry out. For example, for the bride’s headdress called suntiang balenggek. Initially only used by people in the Padang-Pariaman area. But now it is also used by all the children of the Minang clan. Likewise with the night bainai and the procedure for stepping on white cloth, which were also initially only used in certain areas in West Sumatra. What are the Minang traditions and traditional wedding ceremonies that are commonly carried out by the Minang people today? The following are traditions and traditional ceremonies that are usually carried out both before and after the wedding ceremony:
Maresek is the first assessment as the beginning of a series of procedures for the implementation of marriage. In accordance with the kinship system in Minangkabau, namely matrilineal, the woman’s family goes to the man’s family. Usually the family who comes to bring gifts in the form of cakes or fruits. At first some experienced women were sent out to find out if the young man was interested in marrying and getting along with the girl. The procession can take several negotiations until an agreement is reached from both sides of the family.
2. Maminang/Bimbang Tando (Exchanging Signs)
The bride’s family goes to the groom’s family to ask for a hand. If the proposal is accepted, it will continue to the process of exchanging signs as a symbol of binding the agreement and cannot be decided unilaterally. This event involved parents, ninik mamak and elders from both sides. The family entourage of the bride and groom came with complete betel nut arranged in carano or kampia (bags made of pandan leaves) which were served for the male family’s family to taste. In addition, they also brought cakes and fruit. Presenting betel at the beginning of the meeting contains meaning and hope. If there are shortcomings or irregularities it will not become gossip, and the sweet things in the meeting will stick and be remembered forever. Then proceed with the baimbang tando/batuka tando event (exchanging signs). The objects that are exchanged are usually heirlooms such as kris, traditional cloth, or other objects of historical value to the family. Next, discuss the procedure for picking up the groom.
3. Mahanta Siriah (Ask Permission)
The groom-to-be informs and asks for blessings on the wedding plans to his mamak, father’s brothers, sisters who are married and respected elders. The same thing is done by the prospective bride, represented by female relatives who are already married by delivering betel nut. The groom-to-be carries a sling containing palm leaves and tobacco (now replaced with cigarettes). As for the family of the prospective bride, for this ritual they will include a complete betel. This ritual is intended to inform and ask for prayers for his wedding plans. Usually the family visited will provide assistance to share the burden and costs of the wedding according to their ability.
The family of the prospective bride’s father (called bako) wants to show their affection by sharing the cost according to their ability. This event usually takes place a few days before the wedding ceremony. They came with various kinds of delivery. The equipment included is usually complete betel nut (as a traditional head), nasi kuning singgang ayam (traditional food), items needed by the prospective bride (a set of clothing, gold jewelry, side dishes both cooked and raw, cakes). -cakes and so on). According to tradition, the bride-to-be is picked up to be brought to her father’s family home. Then the elders gave advice. The next day, the bride-to-be was paraded back to her house accompanied by her father’s family with various kinds of relief items.
5. Bainai night
Bainai means attaching finely crushed red henna leaves or henna leaves to the nails of the bride-to-be. Usually it takes place the night before the wedding ceremony. This tradition is an expression of love and blessing from the bride’s family elders. Other equipment used included water containing the fragrance of seven kinds of flowers, crushed iani leaves, yellow umbrellas, yellow peddling cloth, hoops, and chairs for the bride and groom. The bride-to-be in the character’s dress and low-cut was brought out of the room flanked by her peers. The event is symbolic bathing by sprinkling fragrant water of seven types of flowers by the elders and both parents. Next, the nails of the bride-to-be are given henna.
6. Manjapuik Marapulai
This is the most important traditional event in the entire series of wedding ceremonies according to Minangkabau customs. The groom is picked up and brought to the bride’s house to carry out the marriage ceremony. This procession is also accompanied by the awarding of heirloom titles to the prospective groom as a sign of maturity. Usually, the bride’s family must bring complete betel nut in a ceremony which signifies their presence which is full of manners (custom), complete groom’s clothes, chicken singgang yellow rice, side dishes, cakes and fruits. For the coastal areas of West Sumatra, yellow umbrellas, spears, swords and pick-up or lost money are usually included. The envoys from the family of the prospective bride picked up the prospective groom while carrying equipment. After the samba-mayambah procession and stating the purpose of arrival, the goods were handed over. The groom and his entourage are paraded to the bride’s residence.
7. Welcoming at Daro’s Children’s House
The tradition of welcoming the prospective groom at the bride’s house is usually a festive and big moment. Accompanied by the sound of traditional Minang music, namely talempong and gandang tabuk, as well as a reciprocal Traditional Wave line consisting of youths dressed in silat, and welcomed by maidens in traditional clothes presenting betel. Betel in a complete traditional carano, golden yellow umbrella, yellow rice, white hawker cloth are the equipment that is usually used. The bride’s family provides an umbrella for the groom to be greeted with a Reciprocal Traditional Wave dance. Next, the line of virgins welcomed the group with a complete betel offering. The female elders sprinkled the groom-to-be with yellow rice. Before entering the door of the house, the groom’s feet are sprinkled with water as a symbol of purification, then walk on a white cloth to the place where the ceremony is taking place.
8. Tradition After the Marriage Contract
There are five Minang traditional events that are usually carried out after the marriage contract. Namely returning the sign, announcing the title of the groom, fighting foreheads, dredging yellow rice and playing coki.
* Bring back Tando
After officially as husband and wife, the sign given as a bond of promise when the application is returned by both parties.
* Disappointing Marapulai Gala
Announce the title for the groom. This title is a sign of honor and maturity that the groom bears. Usually it is announced directly by the ninik mamak of his people.
* Balantuang Kaniang or Complaining the forehead
The bride and groom are led by female elders touching their foreheads to each other. The bride and groom are seated facing each other and their faces are separated by a fan, then the fan is lowered slowly. After that the bride’s forehead will touch each other.
* Manruak Nasi Kuniang
This procession implies that the cooperative relationship between husband and wife must always restrain and complement each other. The ritual begins with the bride and groom scrambling to take the chicken meat hidden in the yellow rice.
* Bamain Coki
Coki is a traditional Minang game. That is a kind of chess game played by two people, the game board resembles a page. This game means that the bride and groom can melt each other’s rigidity and ego in order to create intimacy.