The location of the island of Madura is very close to Surabaya, in the book of Negara Kertagama, especially in Mine 15, it says that Madura Island was originally united with Java, this shows that in the 1365s the Madurese and the Javanese were part of the same cultural community.
Now, to travel to the island, there is a Suramadu crossing bridge (Surabaya Madura) to make it easier to go there.
Friends of Indonesian Tourism GPS, Madura batik will be discussed in two parts, namely Batik Madura Gentongan and Batik Madura 3 Dimensions.
Madura Batik Gentongan
The uniqueness of Batik Madura which is not found in other areas is batik gentongan. It is called gentongan batik because the manufacturing process uses a barrel as a tool to soak the cloth. The barrel technique is only done for one type of color, namely indigo. The Gentong technique for batik dyes is only found in two places located in Tanjung Bumi sub-district, Bangkalan district. It is not known exactly when this technique started in Madura. Usually the barrel is passed down from generation to generation. The results of indigo dyeing carried out on the barrel are intact, durable, and have an even density.
Soaking batik cloth in dye in the barrel is done for a long time. The barrel that has been given water and dye is stored in a closed room. The room must be completely lightproof. Batik craftsmen will dip the fabric in the soaking water for 24 hours. He had to repeat the process the next day. And so on for 6 months. In fact, some do this process for a year non-stop. That is why the color of gentongan batik lasts a very long time, even for decades.
Price? Don’t ask. After going through a complicated and time-consuming process, it is only natural that the gentongan batik cloth costs millions of rupiah. Batik gentongan costs between 2.5 million to 5 million rupiah and even more.
Gentong batik has the characteristics of a bold color (full color), fine workmanship, batik gentongan is getting more and more brilliant in color even though the fabric has become brittle and has a spice aroma due to immersion. The motifs vary, but it is not known for sure what is the classic motif of gentongan batik. Like most, the motifs of Randu flower, hong bird, sik melaya, ola-ola and many more.
In ancient times, making batik took months, even for a gentongan batik, it could take up to a year to process just a piece of batik. This is because the motifs are very complicated and detailed. Extraordinary….. :). In the past, batik was the work of women in the area to fill their spare time waiting for their husbands who worked as sailors to go to faraway areas, such as to the islands of Kalimantan and Sulawesi. For Tanjungbumi women, waiting for the arrival of their husbands is the longest and most stressful time. They are always anxious whether her husband can return home safely and can bring money to support his household. To reduce the anxiety, they finally started to learn batik. However, until now no one can confirm when the wives started making batik. In addition, the people there also have a culture, batik is used for savings. Which is treated as gold or savings. Or saved to be handed over to children and grandchildren, as a sign of mother’s love and affection. Especially for those who have virgin children, this saving batik will be given when they start to get married. Batik is a source of their wealth and pride. No wonder they do it wholeheartedly. This value is increasingly shifting because of the times, batik is no longer a sign of mother’s love and affection, but solely to earn money. This commercial value is one of the reasons why the results of batik cultivation are no longer as good as they used to be… it’s a shame, hahaha….L. But the activities carried out to kill time have now become a fairly large people’s industry.
The process in making gentongan batik is first to do the process of soaking the mori cloth using nyamplong oil and wood burning ashes from the stove. After that, the cloth is given a picture of a motif (direngreng) on both sides. Then given the night. And the coloring process. The length of soaking the batik in the barrel determines the desired blue color. Or staining with other colors soaked in a certain color and then brushed repeatedly to get the desired color. After the desired color is obtained, the process of lorotan is carried out, which is to remove or shed wax or wax with boiling water. Only then dried in the sun. Of the long series of batik making in Tanjungbumi, coloring using a barrel is the most important and difficult process. It takes perseverance, accuracy, and expertise in concocting natural dyes or natural soga. The red color can be taken from the skin of the noni, the green color from the skin of mundu mixed with alum, the blue color from the tarum leaves. Color sensitivity is achieved by the length of the soaking time. Most Madurese batik choose bright colors, red, yellow, green. However, gentongan batik has a variety of colors. The tarpoteh motif (poteh/white background) for example, portrays elegant colors, such as black and brown in its motifs.
Staining with a barrel takes a long time, which is a minimum of six months for one batik cloth. During that time, a batik maker must repeatedly dip the batik cloth into the barrel and then aerate it in the yard of the house.
This gentongan process is full of myths. Local people believe that before the coloring process is carried out, they must make a small ritual so that the coloring process can be carried out successfully. The process of staining the drums must be stopped for one week if a villager dies. From the myth it can be seen how the social relations of the Madurese community are full of tolerance. When a neighbor dies, the batik maker is not selfish in completing his work even though he is being chased by the target order. They join in helping grieving neighbors. Gentong batik only exists in Tanjungbumi, Madura, it has not been found made in other areas. This is because of the water on the island of Madura. Water with high lime content is very beneficial for the coloring process. Colors become more brilliant. While in other areas the color is not as good as in Tanjungbumi.
Hand-drawn Batik Gentongan Cat Motif Missing
(Image source: http://bagiilmu.blogspot.com)
Gentongan hand-drawn batik with bright and unique colors
(Image source: http://www.indonesia.travel)
Image of barrel for coloring
Gentong place for coloring
Gentongan Batik Coloring Process on Gentong
Coloring process (Image source: http://abduh1.blogspot.com)
Three generations of batik together to preserve batik
Batik has a characteristic that represents the area of origin of each batik. Usually this is influenced by the environment and the character of the local community which in the end will have a big influence on the final result of batikan. Batik is a two-dimensional work of applied art, but over time, batik techniques began to develop and one of the results was three-dimensional batik. This time we discuss about 3D Madura Batik or more often called 3D batik (treedi).
Madura is not only known for its satay or beef karapan. Madura has another culture, namely batik. Madura batik is a coastal batik. The pattern is more on the pattern of flora and fauna. With regard to 3D batik, the three dimensions referred to are the results of the coloring. 3D Batik is the process of making batik twice, and coloring three times or more. In three-dimensional batik, the coloring factor becomes very important and demands accuracy. Not all batik craftsmen can do it. Madura batik is known for its eye-catching colors. In 3D batik, there are 4 to 5 colors at once in one fabric. Hmm, the cool name could be rainbow batik…. 🙂 Bright colors like yellow, red, green, blue, orange, or purple. In a piece of cloth, contrasting colors can appear, which is impossible to find in inland or coastal batik cloth in Java.
(image source: http://ivangauzitaufiq.wordpress.com)
Flora motifs are described as leaves and flowers. While fauna motifs are described as the head, wings and tail of a chicken. The combination of flora and fauna motifs is also often done. The motifs of flora and fauna are well maintained, because these batik artisans have lived in agricultural areas for generations. Madura batik motifs are still well-maintained, which are closely related to flora and fauna, perhaps because of the cultural heritage of their ancestors. The indication is that this handwritten batik sheet was worked on by a large family. They consist of grandmothers, children and even grandchildren. It’s crowded….and compact…a family making batik together….needs to be preserved 🙂
3D batik is very expressive compared to Javanese batik in general. Coletan technique is more widely used. Maybe it’s too expressive and it looks rough or messy, because that’s the character of Madurese batik.
(image source: http://starbatik.file.wordpress.com)
Batik with a 3-dimensional effect is a combination of 2 layers of different patterns. The first layer that is immediately visible to the eye is the red triangles with flowers in each corner. The second layer underneath is a pattern of black leaves & white spots. The motif is very simple but artistic. This 3D batik looks exotic when applied to a dress or dress. This batik is very suitable for use by all ages, young and old.
Combination of 2 layers of pattern
(image source: http://mirahbiru4batikmadura.wordpress.com)
The characteristics of Madura Batik can be seen from 2 things, namely color and motif. From the motif, it can be seen from the number of lines in one Batik design. Another distinctive feature is the number of lines emblazoned in one design. Each batik design also has its own story that describes the daily life of the Madurese people. With sharp coloring and dominated by strong black and red colors. Apart from Madura, several other regions also produce 3D batik, for example Malang and Cirebon. This 3D batik includes contemporary 3D batik. One example is the combination of floral motifs and spiderman motifs with a red base color. This batik comes from the Malang area.
(Image source: http://3.bp.blogspot.com)
Mega Mendung Three Dimensional Butterfly Orange Batik, Cirebon batik with butterfly and mega cloudy wadasan motifs. This batik looks like 3 dimensions because it is accompanied by dots on the batik motif. Unique and interesting batik.
The beauty of Madura batik can be found in various corners of Madura Island such as Pamekasan, Bangkalan, Sumenep, and Sampang. Especially in the Tanjungbumi area (Bangkalan) and in Pamekasan. Wouwww, I’ll go to Madura sometime and continue shopping for batik, dehhh…. 🙂
(image source: http://tanahair.kompas.com)
Batik buying and selling activities at the 17 August Market, Pamekasan, Madura, which is open every Thursday and Sunday. Batik craftsmen in Madura still rely on traditional markets to market batik.