|Human Spirituality And Religion|
Animism is the belief that objects, and ideas including animals, tools, and natural phenomena have or are expressions of a living spirit. In some of the animist worldviews found in hunter-gatherer cultures, humans are often considered (roughly) the same as animals, plants, and forces of nature. Thus, it is morally obligatory to treat these objects with respect. In this worldview, humans are regarded as inhabitants of, or part of, nature, not as superior or separate from it. In this society, religious rituals / ceremonies are considered important for survival, because they can win the generosity of the spirits of certain sources of food, the spirits of the place of residence, and fertility and fend off the spirit of envy. In developing animist teachings, such as Shinto, there is a deeper meaning that humans are a special character that separates them from all things, and animals, while still retaining the importance of ritual to ensure good luck, a satisfying harvest, and so on.
Most animist belief systems adhere to the concept of an immortal spirit after physical death. In some systems, the spirit is believed to have transmigrated into a world filled with pleasure, with continual bountiful harvests or even over-play. While in other systems (eg the Nawajo religion), spirits live on earth as ghosts, often of a bad character. Then there remains another system that unites these two elements, believing that the spirit must travel to a spirit world without getting lost, and wandering off as a ghost. Funeral ceremonies, mourning and ancestor worship organized by living relatives, descendants, are often deemed necessary for the successful completion of the journey.
Rituals in animist cultures are often performed by shamans or priests (shamans), who usually appear to be possessed by spirit power, more than or beyond ordinary human experience.
The practice of the head-shrinking tradition as found in some cultures, stems from an animist belief that an enemy of war, if his spirit is not trapped in the head, can escape from his body and, after the spirit transfers to another body, assume the form of an animal of prey, and exact vengeance. .
It may be a spiritual practice, and experience, but it does not have to be mixed with theism or other religious institutions that exist in various societies. Fundamentally the mystical movements included Vedanta, Yoga, early Buddhism (see also The Human Empire), the Eleusis worship tradition, Christian mystical orders, and preachers such as Meister Eckhart, and Islamic Sufism. They focus on the indescribable experience, and oneness with the supernatural (see enlightenment, eternity). In monotheistic mysticism, the mystical experience focuses on oneness with God.
The concept of gods as highly intelligent or supernatural beings, mostly imagined as anthropomorphic or zoomorphic, who humans wish to worship or appease, has existed since the dawn of history, and is probably depicted in Stone Age art as well. In historical times, sacrificial rites evolved into pagan religious customs led by clergy (eg the Vedic religion, (continued clerical practice in Hinduism, which however has developed monotheistic theology, such as pagan monistic theism, Egypt, Greece, Rome and Germany). In this religion, humans are generally characterized by their inferiority to the gods, sometimes reflected in hierarchical societies ruled by dynasties who claim to be descended from divinity / divinity. In religions that believe in reincarnation, especially Hinduism, there is no limit that impermeable between animals, humans, and gods, for souls can move around different species without losing their identity.
The idea of a single God who combines, and transcends all minor gods appears to be independent in some cultures, probably first manifested itself in the heresy of Akhenaten (better known as Henotheism, a common stage in the emergence of Monotheism). The concepts of good and evil in a moral sense arise as a consequence of a single God as absolute authority.
In Judaism, God is central in the election of the Jewish people as a people, and in the Jewish Scriptures, the destiny of the community, and its relationship with God has a clear privilege (should take precedence) over the destiny of the individual.
Christianity grew out of Judaism by emphasizing individual destiny, especially after death, and God’s personal intervention with the incarnation, that is, being human for a while.
Islam, although rejecting the Christian belief for the Trinity and the incarnation of Godhead, Islam sees humans as the Khalifah (Leader) of all God’s creatures who have the primacy of all creatures, and the only creature who has reason and lust. The nickname given to humans in Islam is Bani Adam.
In all Abrahamic religions, humans are rulers, or stewards, over the entire face of the Earth, and all other creatures, and have a unique moral conscience. Hinduism, too, later developed monotheistic theology such as monistic theism, which differs from Western thinking about monotheism.
Monotheistic religions have similarities in the belief that mankind was created by God, bound by obligations of love, and cared for by paternal care.