Alright buddy, this time we will discuss about Peripheral Nervous System (Cranial Nerves and Autonomic Nerves). The peripheral nervous system consists of the conscious nervous system (cranial nerves) and the involuntary nervous system (autonomic nervous system).

1. The Conscious Nervous System (Cranial Nerves)
The conscious nervous system is the nerve that regulates movements that are carried out consciously, under the control of our consciousness, for example our hands are consciously moving to pick up a glass.
The conscious nervous system (craniospinal) includes the nervous system of the head (cranial) and the spinal cord (spinal). The nervous system of the head is fed by 12 pairs of nerves that exit the brain. The nerves of the head are mainly associated with receptors and effectors for the head region. The twelve nerves include:
  1. Three pairs of sensory nerves, namely numbers I, II, and VIII
  2. Five pairs of motor nerves, namely nerves III, IV, VI, XI, and XII
  3. Four pairs of sensory and motor combined nerves, namely nerves V, VII, IX, and X

Muscles that move the eyeball, lens of the eye, pupil of the eye
Other muscles that move the eyeball
Other muscles that move the eyeball
Facial muscles, salivary glands
Auditory (vestibulocochlear)
Cochlea and semicircular duct
Tonil back of tongue
Salivary glands, swallowing muscles in the pharynx
Larynx, lungs, heart, stomach, pancreas, liver
Sympathetic nerves to the larynx, esophagus, lungs, heart, stomach, and pancreas
Muscles in the shoulder blades, larynx, pharynx, and smooth palate
Smooth muscles of the larynx, pharynx, and palate
The spinal nervous system is composed of 31 pairs of nerves that arise from the spinal cord. Spinal nerves serve other receptors and effectors (in addition to the receptors and effectors innervated by the brain) [baca : Sistem Saraf Pusat (Otak dan Sumsum Tulang Belakang)]. Based on their origin, these nerves are divided into 8 pairs of neck nerves, 12 pairs of dorsal nerves, 5 pairs of lumbar nerves, 5 pairs of hip nerves, and 1 pair of tail nerves. [baca : Pengertian dan Jenis Sel Saraf (Neuron)].
In the human body, there is a plexus (combined), namely several nerves that unite to form a network of nerves. There are 3 types of plexuses, namely as follows:
  1. Cervical plexus, is a combination of the nerves of the neck that affect the neck, shoulders, and diaphragm.
  2. Brachial plexus, which is a combination of the nerves of the upper arm that affect the hand
  3. Lumbo sacral plexus, is a combination of the nerves of the back and waist that affect the hips and legs.

2. The Involuntary Nervous System (Autonomous Nervous)
The various nervous systems discussed earlier are the conscious nervous system [baca : Perbedaan Gerak Sadar dan Gerak Refleks]. In addition to the conscious nervous system, we have an involuntary or autonomic nervous system, which works automatically, not under the will of the central nervous system, for example, heart rate, digestive tract movement, and sweating. This nervous system is located specifically in the spinal cord [baca : Perjalanan Impuls Saraf]. The autonomic nervous system consists of the nervous system sympathetic and nerves parasympathetic. The structural difference between the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves lies in the position of the ganglion. Sympathetic nerves have ganglions located along the spine attached to the spinal cord so that they have short preganglionic fibers and have long postganglionic fibers. In contrast, parasympathetic nerves have long preganglionic fibers because ganglions attach to effector-assisted organs and have short postganglionic fibers. Preganglionic fibers in question are nerve fibers that come out of the ganglion.
a. Sympathetic nervous system
The sympathetic nervous system is located in front of the vertebral column and is connected and connected to the spinal cord through nerve fibers.
b. Parasympathetic nervous system
The parasympathetic nervous system is a network of nervous systems associated with ganglions that are scattered throughout the body. The function of the parasympathetic nervous system is the opposite of the function of the sympathetic nervous system.
Affected body part
Speed ​​up heart rate
Slow down heart rate
Constriction (reducing diameter)
Dilation (increase in diameter)
  • Syamsuri, Istamar. Biology 2A for high school. Jakarta : Erlangga

This is a post about Peripheral Nervous System (Cranial Nerves and Autonomic Nerves), hopefully it can be useful for all friends. Thank you very much J