GLOBAL WARMING and the GREENHOUSE EFFECT
Global warming is basically a phenomenon of increasing global temperature from year to year due to the greenhouse effect caused by increased emissions of gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), nitrous oxide (N2O) and CFCs so that solar energy is trapped in the Earth’s atmosphere.
Definition of the greenhouse effect
• The term Greenhouse Effect comes from the experience of farmers in temperate climates who grow vegetables and flowers in greenhouses. What happens with this greenhouse, sunlight penetrates the glass and is reflected back by objects in the greenhouse as heat waves in the form of infrared rays. But the heat wave was trapped in the glass room and did not mix with the cold air outside. As a result, the temperature inside the greenhouse is higher than outside. This is a simple illustration of the greenhouse effect (ERK).
• The experience of the farmers above is then related to what happens to the earth and the atmosphere. The layers of the atmosphere consist of, respectively: troposphere, stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere: The lowest layer (troposphere) is the most important in the case of ERK. About 35% of solar radiation does not reach the earth’s surface. Almost all of the short-wave radiation (alpha, beta and ultraviolet rays) is absorbed by the top three layers. Others are scattered and reflected back into space by gas molecules, clouds and particles. The remaining 65% goes into the troposphere. In this troposphere, 14% is absorbed by water vapor, dust, and certain gases so that only about 51% reaches the earth’s surface. Of this 51%, 37% is direct radiation and 14% is diffuse radiation that has undergone scattering in the troposphere by gas molecules and dust particles. The radiation received by the earth is partly absorbed and partly reflected. The absorbed radiation is re-emitted in the form of infrared rays
• Infrared rays reflected by the earth are then absorbed by gas molecules which include water vapor or H20, CO2, methane (CH4), and ozone (O3). These infrared heat rays are trapped in the troposphere and therefore the temperature of the air in the troposphere and the earth’s surface rises. There was the Greenhouse Effect. Gases that absorb infrared light are called Greenhouse Gases.
• If there were no ERK, Earth’s average temperature would be around minus 180 C — too cold for human life. With the ERK, the earth’s average temperature is 330 C higher, which is 150 C. So, ERK makes the earth’s temperature suitable for human life.
• However, when the infrared rays are trapped by CO2 and other gases, the infrared rays will bounce back to the earth and the earth’s temperature will rise. Compared to the 50s, for example, now the earth’s temperature has risen by about 0.20 C more.
• So far we still see the greenhouse effect as detrimental to humans, but this is not the case. Without the greenhouse effect, our earth would be as cold as an iceberg. The greenhouse effect is what makes the earth warm and livable. It’s just that as much as possible the increase in greenhouse gases must be suppressed which will increase the greenhouse effect so that the earth’s temperature does not get hotter. The greenhouse effect has been widely used in Europe by farmers, especially in winter to keep their plants warm.
The greenhouse effect is caused by
• The greenhouse effect is caused by an increase in the concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other gases in the atmosphere. The increase in CO2 gas concentration is caused by the increase in the burning of fuel oil (BBM), coal and other organic fuels that exceed the ability of plants and the sea to absorb them.
Energy that enters the earth experiences: 25% is reflected by clouds or other particles in the atmosphere 25% is absorbed by clouds 45% is absorbed by the earth’s surface 5% is reflected back by the earth’s surface
The absorbed energy is reflected back in the form of infrared radiation by clouds and the earth’s surface. However, most of the infrared emitted by the earth is retained by clouds and CO2 gas and other gases, to be returned to the earth’s surface. Under normal circumstances, the greenhouse effect is needed, with the greenhouse effect the temperature difference between day and night on earth is not too much different.
In addition to CO2 gas, which can cause a greenhouse effect are sulfur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen monoxide (NO) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) as well as several organic compounds such as methane gas (CH4) and chloro fluoro carbon (CFC). These gases play an important role in increasing the greenhouse effect.
How do Greenhouse Gases (GHG) contribute to the greenhouse effect and change the earth’s climate?
The mechanism of the greenhouse effect on earth can be explained as follows:
The “atmosphere,” is the layer of various gases that surrounds the earth, and is the engine of the physical climate system. When the emission / radiation from the sun in the form of visible light or short waves enters the atmosphere, some part of the light is reflected or reflected back by clouds and dust in the sky, others are transmitted towards the land surface. Some of the radiation that goes directly to the land surface is absorbed by the earth, but the other part is “reflected” back into space by ice, snow, water, and other reflective surfaces of the earth. The process of sunlight emitting from space through the atmosphere to the earth’s surface so that we can feel the earth’s temperature getting warmer is called the greenhouse effect (ERK). ).
The link between the greenhouse effect, global warming and climate change?
Sunlight that is not absorbed by the earth’s surface will be reflected back from the earth’s surface into space.
As explained above, visible light is a short wave, after being reflected back it turns into a long wave in the form of heat energy (infrared light), which we feel. However, some of the heat energy cannot penetrate back or escape into space, because the layers of atmospheric gases have been disturbed in composition (the composition is excessive). As a result, the heat energy that should be released into space (stratosphere) becomes radiated back to the earth’s surface (troposphere) or additional heat energy returns to the earth in a long period of time, so that more than normal conditions, this is an excessive greenhouse effect due to the composition of the layers. greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are disrupted, consequently triggering an increase in the average temperature on the earth’s surface, causing global warming. Because temperature is one of the parameters of the climate with such an effect on the earth’s climate, there is a global climate change.
The impact of the greenhouse effect
- The melting of the ice at both poles
- Forest fires
As an illustration
Efforts to reduce the Greenhouse Effect
- Reducing the use of petroleum in all activities (transportation & industry) that produce greenhouse gases.
- Reforest bare forests to absorb CO2.
- Do not use spray products, air conditioners, refrigerators that emit CFC gas.
- Avoid burning waste by recycling waste that cannot be decomposed by micro-organisms (plastic, iron, rubber)
- Save electricity consumption.
- Reducing methane gas by utilizing livestock manure for bio gas.