|Environmental Benefits Globally|
Global environmental benefits in the field of Biodiversity include:
- Conservation of globally significant biodiversity;
- Sustainable use of globally significant components of biodiversity; and
- Fair and equitable sharing of the benefits resulting from the use of genetic resources, including through adequate access to genetic resources.
2. Land Degradation
Global environmental benefits in the area of Land Degradation, specifically addressing desertification and deforestation, include:
- Increasing the provision of agro-ecosystems and forest ecosystem goods and services;
- Mitigated/avoided greenhouse effect and increased carbon sequestration;
- Reduced vulnerability of agro-ecosystems and forest ecosystems to climate change and other human-caused impacts;
- Conservation and sustainable use of biodiversity in productive landscapes; and
- Reduced pollution and siltation of international waters.
3. International Waters
The global environmental benefits in the field of international waters include:
- Multi-country cooperation to reduce threats to international waters;
- Reducing the pollution burden in international waters from nutrient enrichment and other land-based stresses;
- Improve and maintain freshwater, coastal and marine ecosystems, including globally relevant biodiversity and ecosystems and the capacity to sequester carbon to reduce global warming; and
- Reducing vulnerability to climate variability and climate-related risks, and enhancing ecosystem resilience through multi-country cooperation to balance surface and groundwater use across sectors.
4. Ozone Layer Depletion
Ozone depletion has a detrimental impact on humans, animals, plants and ecosystems, and the focus of this goal is to protect the ozone layer through reducing the use of ODS worldwide. The environmental benefits of reducing the use of ODS include:
- Protect human health from cancer, cataracts, and damage to the immune system through prevention of ODS disposal;
- Reducing the risk of ozone depletion to the environment, such as aquatic ecosystems, terrestrial plants, and possibly climate change;
5. Persistent Organic Pollution (POP)
Exposure to POPs can cause severe effects on human health through birth defects, cancer, and disorders of the immune and reproductive systems, biodiversity, and ecosystems. Reducing POP so as to generate global environmental benefits such as:
- The risk of POPs is reduced to human health and the environment through reducing and eliminating the production, use and release of POPs; and
- Protected ecosystems and goods and services, including biodiversity, from the impacts of POPs.
6. Sustainable Forest Management
Global environmental benefits address the emphasis by the UNFCCC, CBD and UNCCD on the importance of forest conservation, use and management, including:
- Reducing forest loss and forest degradation;
- Maintenance of various environmental services and products derived from forests; and
- Sustainable livelihoods are enhanced for local communities and forest dependent communities.
Environmental damage is a social phenomenon and phenomenon that is currently often found in various areas, both in land, water and atmospheric damage. Environmental damage that occurs in an area can be felt by residents living outside the area. The environmental problem that occurs in all countries in the world, both in developed and developing countries is pollution.
According to the Law of the Republic of Indonesia Number 23 of 1997 concerning Environmental Management, environmental pollution is the entry or inclusion of living things, substances, energy, and or other components into the environment by human activities so that the quality decreases to a certain level which causes the environment does not function properly according to its designation.