Jaipong Dance (https://franciskaindri02.wordpress.com)

Jaipongan is a dance genre that was born from the creativity of an artist from Bandung, Gugum Gumbira. His attention to folk art, one of which is Tap Tilu, makes him well acquainted with the repertoire of traditional dance movement patterns that exist in Kliningan/Bajidoran or Tap Tilu. The opening movements, pencugan, nibakeun and several kinds of mincid movements from some of the arts above are enough to inspire the development of dance or art which is now known as Jaipongan. As a social dance, the Jaipong dance has been successfully developed by Sundanese artists into a dance that is popular and very popular with the people of West Java (in particular), even popular outside of West Java.

Mentioning Jaipongan will not only remind people of a kind of attractive Sundanese traditional dance with dynamic movements. The hands, shoulders, and hips are always the dominant part in the agile movement pattern, accompanied by drumming. Especially for female dancers, all of them are always accompanied by a sweet smile and twinkling eyes. This is a kind of social dance in the Sundanese dance tradition that emerged in the late 1970s whose popularity is still alive today in the community.


Before this form of performing arts emerged, there were several influences behind this form of social dance. In West Java, for example, social dance is the influence of the Ball Room, which is usually in social dance performances that cannot be separated from the existence of ronggeng and pamogoran. Ronggeng in social dance no longer functions for ceremonial activities, but for entertainment or slang. The existence of ronggeng in performing arts has an attraction that invites sympathy from pamogorans. For example, in the Tap Tilu dance, which is well known by the Sundanese people, it is estimated that this art was popular around 1916. As a folk performing art, this art is only supported by simple elements, such as waditra which includes fiddle, drums, two kulanter, three taps. , and gongs. Likewise with the dance movements that do not have a standard movement pattern, the dancer’s costumes are simple as a reflection of the people.

Along with the fading of the above types of arts, former pamogorans (audiences who played an active role in the performing arts of Tap Tilu/Doger/Tayub) turned their attention to the performing arts of Kliningan, which are located in the North Coast of West Java (Karawang, Bekasi, Purwakarta, Indramayu, and Subang ) is known as Kliningan Bajidoran whose dance patterns and performances are similar to the previous arts (Ketuk Tilu/Doger/Tayub). Meanwhile, the existence of dances in Banjet Masks is quite popular, especially in Karawang, where some Bajidoran movement patterns are taken from the dances in Banjet Masks. Choreographically, the dance still shows traditional patterns (Ketuk Tilu) which contains elements of opening movements, pencugan, nibakeun and several kinds of mincid movements which in turn become the basis for the creation of the Jaipongan dance. Some of the basic movements of Jaipongan dance apart from Tilu Tilu, Ibing Bajidor and Banjet Mask are Tayuban and Pencak Silat.


The appearance of the dance by Gugum Gumbira was originally called the Tap Tilu development, which is because the basis of the dance is the development of the Tap Tilu. The first work of Gugum Gumbira is still very thick with the color of the Tap Tilu ibing, both in terms of choreography and accompaniment, which later became popular with the dance as Jaipongan.

The characteristics of Jaipongan kaleran style, namely cheerfulness, erotic, humorous, spirit, spontaneity, and simplicity (natural, as it is). This is reflected in the pattern of dance presentations in the show, some of which are patterned (Ibing Pola) as in the art of Jaipongan in Bandung, there are also dances that are not patterned (Ibing Saka), for example in the art of Jaipongan Subang and Karawang. We can find this term in Jaipongan kaleran style, especially in the Subang area. In its presentation, Jaipongan kaleran style, as follows: 1) Tatalu; 2) Flower Gadung; 3) Kawung Gopar fruit; 4) The Opening Dance (Ibing Pola), usually performed by a single dancer or Sinden Tatandakan (attacked the sinden but could not sing but danced the song sinden/juru kawih); 5) Jeblokan and Jabanan, are part of the show when the audience (bajidor) seeser money (jabanan) while greetings. The term jeblokan is defined as a permanent partner between sinden and the audience (bajidor).


Jaipong Dance Development

The first Jaipongan works that became known by the public were the dances “Leaf Pulus Keser Bojong” and “Rendeng Bojong” which are both types of female dance and dance in pairs (male and female). From the dance emerged several names of reliable Jaipongan dancers such as Tati Saleh, Yeti Mamat, Eli Somali, and Pepen Dedi Kurniadi. The beginning of the appearance of the dance became a conversation, the central issue of which was the erotic and vulgar movement. However, from the exposure of several print media, the name Gugum Gumbira became known to the public, especially after the Jaipongan dance in 1980 was performed on TVRI, Jakarta’s central station. The impact of this popularity further increases the frequency of performances, both on television, celebrations and celebrations organized by the private sector and the government.

The presence of Jaipongan has contributed significantly to dance activists to be more active in exploring the types of folk dances that previously lacked attention. With the emergence of Jaipongan dance, it is used by dance activists to organize Jaipongan dance courses, and night pub entrepreneurs are also used to attract invited guests, where further development of business opportunities of this kind are formed by dance activists as an effort to empower the economy by the name of the Dance Studio or groups in some areas of West Java, for example in Subang with Jaipongan style “kaleran” (north).


The next development of Jaipongan dance occurred in the 1980s-1990s, where Gugum Gumbira created other dances such as Toka-toka, Setra Sari, Sonteng, Pencug, Kuntul Mangut, Leaf Puring, Rawwayan and Kawung Anten dances. From these dances emerged some reliable Jaipongan dancers, including Iceu Effendi, Yumiati Mandiri, Miming Mintarsih, Nani, Erna, Mira Tejaningrum, Ine Dinar, Ega, Nuni, Cepy, Agah, Aa Suryabrata and Asep.

Today, Jaipongan dance can be called as one of the artistic identities of West Java, this can be seen in several important events relating to guests from foreign countries who come to West Java, then they are greeted with Jaipongan dance performances. Likewise, artistic missions to foreign countries are always equipped with Jaipongan dance. Jaipongan dance influences many other arts in West Java society, both in the art of wayang performances, gamelan, genjring/terbangan, Kacapi jaipong, and almost all folk performances as well as on modern dangdut music in collaboration with Jaipong.

Source: Our History