PRACTICUM REPORT
FRUIT COOKING

Aim :
1. Accelerate fruit ripening using ZPT
2. Determining the amount of ZPT concentration to stimulate the ripening of certain fruits
Results and Discussion :

B. Discussion
This fruit ripening practicum uses mango as an object to see the effect of ethylene in fruit ripening. Ethylene used is 500 ppm, 700 ppm and 900 ppm. Based on the results of the practicum, it turns out that mangoes at 500 ppm ethylene ripen faster, namely on day 1. This is not in accordance with Abidin’s (1985) statement, namely at higher concentrations, the fruit will ripen faster. Mango is optimal at the state of the amount of ethylene 400-800ppm. Fruit ripening is seen by the presence of fruit that becomes soft.
Ethylene is an unsaturated hydrocarbon compound which is a gas at room temperature. These compounds can cause important changes in the process of growth and maturation of agricultural products. According to Abidin (1985) ethylene is a growth hormone which is generally different from auxins, gibberellins and cytokinins. Under normal conditions, ethylene is a gas and its chemical structure is very simple. In nature, ethylene will play a role when there is a physiological change in a plant. This hormone will play a role in the fruit ripening process in the climacteric phase.
The climacteric is a phase in which a lot of changes take place (Zimmermar, 1961). Climateric is also defined as a state of “auto stimulation” in the fruit so that the fruit becomes ripe accompanied by an increase in the respiration process (Hall, 1984). Climacteric is a transitional phase from the growth process to wilting, increased respiration depends on the amount of ethylene produced and increased protein and RNA synthesis (Heddy, 1989). It can be concluded that the climacteric is a sudden period unique to certain fruits where during the process of ethylene production accompanied by the start of the fruit ripening process, the fruit shows a sudden increase in CO2 during fruit ripening, so it is called a climacteric fruit. If the respiration pattern is different because after CO2 is produced it does not increase but decreases slowly, the fruit is classified as non-climacteric (Zimmermar, 1961). Based on its climacteric properties, the climacteric process in fruit can be divided into 3 stages, namely ascending climacteric, peak climacteric and descending climacteric. Fruits that undergo a climacteric process include tomatoes, avocados, mangoes, papayas, peaches and pears because these fruits show a sudden increase in CO2 during fruit ripening. Fruits that have different patterns from the pattern above include cucumbers, grapes, limes, watermelons, oranges, pineapples and strawberries (Kusumo, 1990).
The speed of fruit ripening occurs because the growth substances encourage the breakdown of flour and accumulation of sugar (Kusumo, 1990). The process of breaking down flour and accumulating sugar is a fruit ripening process which is characterized by changes in color, fruit texture and odor on the fruit or the occurrence of fruit ripening. Most fruits the first sign of ripeness is the loss of their green color. The chlorophyll content of slowly ripening fruit decreases. When there is a climacteric chlorophyllase is responsible for the decomposition of chlorophyll. The hydrolytic decomposition of chlorophyllase which breaks down chlorophyll into vital parts and intact porphyrin cores, the chlorophyllide in question will not result in a color change. The prophyrin part of the chlorophyll molecule can undergo oxidation or saturation, so the color will be lost. The softness of the fruit is caused by the breakdown of insoluble photopectin. Ripening usually increases the amount of simple sugars that give it a sweet taste (Fantastico, 1986).
The fruit ripening process includes two processes, namely:
1. Ethylene affects membrane permeability so that the permeability becomes greater
2. The protein content is increased because ethylene has stimulated protein synthesis. The protein formed is involved in the fruit ripening process because it will increase the enzymes that cause climacteric respiration (Wereing and Philips, 1970).
Hypothesis between the relationship of ethylene and fruit ripening:
1. Maturation is defined as the embodiment of the process of starting the wilting process in which intercellular cells are disrupted.
2. Maturation is defined as the final phase of the substrate decomposition process and is a process required by the material for the synthesis of specific enzymes in the wilting process (Heddy, 1989).
Grouping the effects of ethylene in plant physiology, among others, supports the formation of root hairs, supports climacteric respiration and fruit ripening, stimulates germination, supports abscission in leaves, supports flower fading in the orchid extracting process, supports the disposal process in pineapples, inhibits auxin transport naturally. basipetal and lateral, supports epinasts, inhibits stem and root elongation in some plant species although ethylene can stimulate stem, coleoptile and mesocotyl elongation in certain plants, stimulating isodiametrically greater growth than longitudinal growth (Wereing and Philips, 1970).
Some things that must be considered in discussing the mechanism of action of ethylene, namely:
1. The time required for ethylene to complete the ripening process
2. Ethylene has very unique properties in the ripening process of fruit and in other plant parts
3. In very low concentrations, it can stimulate physiological activity
4. The sensitivity of plant tissue to very low concentrations of ethylene varies according to age (Abidin, 1981).

Conclusion
Based on the results and discussion, it can be concluded that:
1. The higher the ethylene concentration, the faster the ripening process of certain fruits
2. Soaking fruit in high enough concentration of ethylene can speed up the ripening process
3. During the ripening process there is a change in color, texture, smell and taste
4. At a concentration of 900 ppm ethylene, mangoes will quickly ripen.

Reference list

Abidin, Z. 1985. Basic Knowledge of Growth Regulatory Substances. Space, Bandung.
Chaiimatun Nisa and Rodinah. 2005. Tissue Culture of Several Cultivars of Banana Fruit (Musa paradisiacal L.) With Mixture of NAA and Kinetin. Bioscientiae Vol. 2, No, 2, Pg. 23-36. Lambung Mangkurat University Biology Study Program. South Kalimantan.
Fantastico. 1986. Post-Harvest Physiology. Gajah Mada University Press, Yogyakarta.
Hall, JL1984. Plany Cell Structure and Metabolism. Language Book Society. English.
Kusumo, S. 1990. Plant Plant Regulatory Substances. Yasaguna, Jakarta.
Wereing, DF and IDJ Phillips. 1970. The Control of Growth and Differentation in Plants. Pergamon Press, New York.
Heddy, S. 1989. Plant Hormones. CV Rajawali, Jakarta.

Zummermar,PW Plant Growth Regulation.The Iowa State University Press.USA

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