Forms of Socialization – Humans cannot be separated from the socialization process, because humans are social creatures. The following forms of socialization exist in the community:
- Primary socialization is the first socialization that a person gets after he is born and becomes part of society.
- Secondary socialization is a continuation of primary socialization, which can introduce a person to a new world in society. Secondary socialization consists of:
- Desocialization vs resocialization
That is the process of removing the identity attached to a person to be replaced with a new identity, for example someone who enters a mental hospital or prison will get the identity of a madman or criminal. Or the revocation of identity through brainwashing that is done intentionally to eliminate someone’s identity and be replaced with a new identity. For example, terrorist followers who are brainwashed to be able to do things according to what their leaders want.
- Anticipatory socialization
Namely secondary socialization is done to prepare individuals into new roles. For example, preparation for a new level of education or a new environment, or in a new status. This needs to be prepared as well as possible so that someone can face and run this status very well.
Socialization has a pattern called socialization patterns, there are 2 kinds of patterns in socialization proposed by Jaeger, namely:
1. Repressive socialization
Repressive socialization is socialization that puts forward the application of punishment to a mistake. Repressive socialization also emphasizes the material on punishment and rewards. Repressive socialization emphasizes authoritarian socialization, children must obey their parents’ orders, cannot give opinions or arguments. This socialization is one-way in communication.
2. Participant socialization
Participant socialization is socialization that involves other people or giving other people an opinion. The position between one individual and another has the same position in opinion, even though they have different positions and ages. For example, before applying the rules to children, children will be invited to discuss first. This participant socialization provides rewards if the behavior is as expected.
Hurlock also has the same opinion about the pattern of socialization, namely:
· Authoritarian Pattern
The authoritarian pattern in socialization is a rigid socialization. The rules in this pattern are controlled by one person only, and must be carried out without arguing, there are penalties applied to this pattern, but if achievements can be achieved, no rewards are obtained.
· Democratic pattern
This democratic pattern in socialization involves a process of discussion and deliberation in making an agreement about what will be achieved and done, so that the child understands the benefits of the order or regulation for himself. This socialization emphasizes the learning and education process, so that children will understand and understand that the rules are good for themselves. If the achievement can be achieved there will be an award.
· Permissive pattern
The permissive pattern in socialization emphasizes freedom but is controlled. A person will be allowed to do what he wants, but if the behavior is excessive, he will get a reprimand. Read: Patterns and Stages – Stages of Socialization