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A. PROCLAMATION EVENT
For a long time, Indonesia has been in the grip of the colonialists, be it the Dutch or the Japanese. Indonesia has been trying to escape this situation for decades. The emergence of nationalist movements in Indonesia was the beginning of the emergence of nationalist groups who thought that Indonesia could become a sovereign state, which could determine its own destiny.
In 1945, Japan, which still controlled Indonesia, was increasingly pressured by the Asia Pacific war. On the other hand, the Indonesian people were increasingly passionate about seizing independence from the Japanese. So to captivate the hearts of the Indonesian people, Japan promised to give independence to Indonesia in the near future, so a body called the Indonesian Independence Preparatory Research Agency (BPUPKI) was formed on April 29, 1945 or Dokuritsu Junvi Cosakai. This body is chaired by Dr. Radjiman Widoyoningrat with a total of 62 members.
Furthermore, on May 29 – June 1, 1945, BPUPKI held a session in an effort to prepare for Indonesian independence. The focus of the discussion in this first session is to discuss the basis and philosophy of the Indonesian state. In the discussion, two figures appeared who expressed their opinions, namely Moh. Yamin and Ir. Soerkarno. each of them proposes 5 basic points that can be used as the basis of the Indonesian state.
On 10 -17 July 1945, BPUPKI held another session. This session discussed the Constitution (UUD). In this trial, BPUPKI succeeded in making a draft of the Constitution.
The proclamation event began with the dropping of an atomic bomb by the allies on Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. It made the spirit of the Japanese soldiers begin to slacken. The Investigating Agency for Preparatory Work for Indonesian Independence (BPUPKI), which was formed by the Japanese on March 1, 1945, the day after the atomic bomb fell, changed its name to the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI).
The change of BPUPKI to PPKI certainly gives new hope for the struggle of the Indonesian people. On August 9, 1945, the second atomic bomb was dropped by the Allies on the city of Nagasaki. This event made Japan submit and surrender to the allies. This very opportune moment is certainly well utilized by the Indonesian people.
Ir.Soekarno and Mohd Hatta as two PPKI figures along with Radjiman Widoyoningrat as former chairman of BPUPKI were flown to Dalat, Vietnam to meet with the Japanese representative, Marshal Terauchi. They were lured by the Japanese that Japan wanted to give Indonesia independence as soon as possible. Another thing emerged in the country, where Sutan Syahrir had heard the news of Japan’s defeat against the allies through BBC radio.
On August 14, 1945, when the representatives of the Indonesian nation had returned from Dalat, Vietnam, Sutan Syahrir immediately ordered the young people to immediately urge the old people to quickly proclaim the independence of Indonesia. They considered that the lure given by Japan was only a form of delay and firmly rejected the gift of “independence” from Japan. At that time, Soekarno thought that Japan had not really surrendered, so he was afraid that there would be massive bloodshed if the proclamation of independence was carried out.
Soekarno and Hatta together with Soebardjo went to Rear Admiral Maeda’s house to obtain confirmation of the surrender of Japan. After leaving Maeda’s house, they immediately agreed to discuss the preparations for Indonesian independence on August 16, 1945 in the form of a PPKI meeting. Initially, the meeting was scheduled to start at 10.00 WIB. However, both Soekarno and Hatta were not present at the meeting because they had been kidnapped by young people, this event was known as the “Rengasdengklok Incident”.
In the early hours of August 16, 1945, young people including Chaerul Saleh, and Sukarni together with other youths kidnapped and took Soekarno and Hatta to Rengasdengklok, this incident is known as the “Rengasdengklok incident”.
|PROCLAMATION EVENTS AND RENGASDENGKLOK EVENTS|
B. RENGASDENGKLOK EVENT
The youth groups remained adamant that the proclamation of independence should be carried out as soon as possible without waiting for further orders or instructions from Japan. Previously, Soekarno and Mohd Hatta remained in their stance that they did not want to carry out the proclamation of independence for fear of bloodshed between the Indonesian people and the Japanese army. However, the younger groups did not remain silent, they continued to urge and convince the older groups to immediately proclaim independence.
They persisted in rejecting the plan given by the Japanese, and continued to urge Sokerno and Hatta to quickly declare independence. They are optimistic that whatever happens at the time of the proclamation, the Indonesian people are ready with all the risks.
In Jakarta, the young group represented by Wikana and the older group represented by Ahmad Soebardjo held negotiations. The results of the negotiations stated that Ahmad Soebardjo agreed to immediately implement the proclamation. Therefore, Yusuf Kunto was sent to Rengasdengklok to pick up Soekarno and Hatta to be brought back to Jakarta. However, Ahmad Soebardjo managed to convince the young group to postpone the proclamation of independence again.
In the evening, Soekarno and Mohd. Hatta went to Nishimura’s house to discuss further about preparations for independence. However, Nishimura broke his promise and said that they could not take any decision regarding granting independence to Indonesia, this was based on orders from Tokyo which said that Japan must maintain its status quo. Soekarno and Hatta were disappointed with Nishimura’s answer. In response to this, Soekarno and Hatta thought that there was no point in having a dialogue with Japan anymore.
After leaving Nishimura’s house, they continued their journey to Admiral Maeda’s house to prepare for a meeting to draft the text of the proclamation. The location chosen was intended to avoid confrontation from the Japanese army considering that Admiral Maeda was the Head of the Naval Liaison Office in the Army Territory. Soekarno, Mohd. Hatta, and Achmad Soebardjo also witnessed the preparation of the text of the proclamation, and was witnessed by BM. Diah, Sudiro, and Sayuti Melik.
Many considerations were considered by these figures in completing the text of the proclamation. Negotiations are carried out by the young and the old. With a long debate, Soekarno finally completed the proclamation script which was written himself on a paper, the following reads:
We, the Indonesian people, hereby declare the independence of Indonesia. Matters concerning the transfer of power, etc., were carried out in a thorough manner and in the shortest possible time.
Representatives of the Indonesian nation
After the text of the proclamation was completed, a new problem arose, namely the debate over who would sign the manuscript. Mohd.hatta suggested that the manuscript must be signed by all people present at the time of preparation as representatives of the Indonesian nation. However, Sukarni objected by proposing that the text of the proclamation should be signed by Soekarno and Mohd. Hatta. This is based on the dual power of Soekarno and Hatta, both of which have a very significant influence on the Indonesian nation. Sukarno agreed to Sukarni’s proposal. So Sayuti Melik was ordered to copy and type the text from Soekarno’s handwriting with several improvements, including:
a. The word “tempo” is changed to “tempo”.
b. The concept of “representatives of the Indonesian nation” was changed to “on behalf of the Indonesian nation”.
c. The words “Djakarta 17-08-’05”, changed to “Djakarta, day 17 boelan 8 Tahoen ’05”.
d. After being typed, the text of the proclamation was signed by Soekarno-Hatta.
The reading of the text of the proclamation is also planned to be held tomorrow at 10.00 WIB in the Ikada field. However, for security reasons, the event was moved to Soekarno’s residence on Jl. Pengangsaan Timur no. 56.
At Soekarno’s residence several youth figures were present including Soewirjo, Wilopo, and Tabrani. The event started at 10.00 WIB, starting with the reading of the text of the proclamation, followed by a short speech by Soekarno, followed by the raising of the red and white flag sewn by Fatmawati.
By reading the text of the proclamation which was read by Ir. Soekarno, it can be ascertained that Indonesia had separated from Japan and became independent. Thousands of people who packed Soekarno’s residence shouted with joy and dissolved in the emotion of victory.
Well that’s the post this time about Events of the Proclamation and Events of Rengasdengklok. Hopefully the knowledge can be useful. If there is something you want to ask, please ask friends through the comment box below. Thank you for visiting softilmu, don’t forget to follow, like and comment. J