Definition of Position and General Terms of Evaluation
Why evaluation of learning outcomes needs to be done? Because by evaluating, it will be known whether the teaching and learning process, where learning and teachers interact, has achieved the desired target or not. In detail, the reasons for the need for learner evaluation are as follows:
- The teacher’s teaching ability will be known, after an evaluation is held.
- The level of learning authority on the subject matter provided will be known after an evaluation is held.
- The location of the learner’s difficulties will be known after an evaluation is held.
- The level of difficulty and ease of learning materials provided by students will be known after an evaluation is held.
- Utilization of educational facilities and facilities will be known after an evaluation.
- Only spa remedies can be given to students who have difficulty as well. will be informed after seeing the results
- The teaching objectives that have been formulated will be monitored by the level of achievement after an evaluation is held.
- Learners can be grouped into which groups will also be known after the evaluation.
- Which learners need priority in counseling guidance, and which ones are not a priority will be known after evaluation.
It is clear that evaluation is very important to do in order to provide the best possible service, from furthermore it is very important for the achievement of educational goals.
Definition of evaluation
The word evaluation is an Indonesianization of the word evaluation in English, which is commonly interpreted as an assessment or assessment. The verb is evaluate which means to assess or assess. Meanwhile, people who assess or assess are called evaluators (Echols, 1975).
Literally the word evaluation comes from English Evaluation; in Arabic: al-taqdir; in Indonesian means: assessment. The root word is value; in Arabic; al-qimah; in Indonesian means; score. Thus literally, educational evaluation (educational evaluation = al-Taqdir al-Tarbawiy) can be interpreted as assessments in education (fields) or assessments on matters relating to educational activities.
In terms of terms, as stated by Edwind Wandt and Gerald W. Brown (1977): Evaluation refers to act or process to determine the value of some thing. According to the definition of int, the term evaluation refers to or implies: an action or a process to determine the value of something. If the definition of evaluation put forward by Edwin Wandt and Geral W Brown is to provide a definition of educational evaluation, then educational evaluation can be defined as; an action or activity (which is carried out with a purpose) or a process (which takes place in the context of) determining the value of everything in the world of education (i.e. everything related to, or happening in the field of education). Or in short: Educational evaluation is an activity or process of determining the value of education, so that the quality or results can be known.
Given the very broad discussion of educational assessment, in this book, the discussion will only be limited to assessments or evaluations carried out in schools. Regarding the definition of educational evaluation, in our homeland, state administration institutions put forward limitations regarding Educational Evaluation as follows:
1) Processes/activities to determine educational progress, compared to predetermined goals;
2) Efforts to obtain information in the form of feedback for the improvement of education
Terminologically, the evaluation put forward by the experts as follows:
1. Groundlund (1976) defines evaluation as follows:
…. a systematk process of determining the extent to whkh instructional objectives are achieved by pupil.
2. Nurkancana (1983) states that evaluation is carried out with regard to the process of activities to determine the value of something.
3. Raka Joni (1975) defines evaluation as follows: ‘a process in which we consider an item or symptom by considering certain criteria, which standards contain the meaning of good not good, adequate, inadequate, qualified, not qualified by the words otherwise we use Value Judgment.
Based on the understanding above, it is very clear that evaluation is a process of determining one’s value by determining certain benchmarks to achieve a goal. Evaluation of learning outcomes is a process of determining the value of student learning achievement by determining certain benchmarks in order to achieve predetermined teaching goals.
Differences in Measurement and Assessment
Before the final evaluation, measurements are taken. Etymologically, measurement is a translation of measurement (Echols, 1975). Terminologically, measurement is defined as an attempt to understand something as it is. Because something that is being measured is meant to be known for what it is, then in the measurement the slightest interpretation of something. As it is, it contains an understanding that something that is being measured is incomparable to something else.
If the notion of evaluation and measurement is drawn to the learning and learning setting, the following definitions can be put forward:
1. Measurement is an effort or activity intended to determine learning as it is, including: learning outcomes. learning learning process, those who are involved in learning learning (learners and teachers).
2. Assessment or evaluation is an activity that intends to determine the value of learning and learning (whether or not, successful or not, adequate or not, learning learning, which includes learning outcomes, the learning process and those involved in learning and learning).
Because measurement is one of the activities that are under evaluation, the person evaluating actually also carries out measurement activities. Education Evaluation. thus also includes education expenditures. Learning learning evaluation also includes measurement of learning and learning.
Definition of Evaluation in the Educational Process
With regard to the meaning of the term evaluation of education in our country, the Institute of State Administration put forward the limitations regarding educational evaluation as follows: Educational evaluation is:
1. The process or activity to determine educational progress, compared to predetermined goals
2. Efforts to obtain information in the form of feedback for the improvement of education
Starting from the description above, if the definition of educational evaluation is stated in the following chart form.
The chart shows us that in the assessment process, a comparison is made between the information that has been successfully collected against certain criteria, to then make a decision or formulate a certain policy. The criteria or benchmarks that are held are none other than the goals that have been determined before the educational activities are carried out.
CHART OF EDUCATION EVALUATION
EVALUATION POSITION IN THE EDUCATION PROCESS
The position of evaluation in learning from learning is very important, and can even be seen as an inseparable part of the overall learning and learning process. It is important because with atomic evaluation it is known whether the learning and learning have achieved their goals or not. With the evaluation, it will also be known what factors make learning and learning successful and what factors make learning and learning not successful or not. Not only that, with evaluation it is also known where the failure and success of learning and learning are. Even though he knows this, it can be used as a starting point in making improvements to learning duo learning.
Evaluation also has an inseparable position from learning and learning as a whole, because learning and learning strategies, learning and learning processes place evaluation as one of the steps. Almost all instructional system procedure experts place this evaluation as the steps. Also pay attention to the learning steps put forward by the following experts, for sure we will know how inseparable the evaluation is from the whole learning and learning process.
1. Mentout Kauffman, the steps that must be taken in learning learning are to use the problem solving model as follows:
a. Identification of problems.
b. Determine the conditions and alternative problem solving
c. Choose a problem-solving strategy.
d. Carry out troubleshooting.
e. Determining the effectiveness of the results
f. Revise all steps a to Imgkah c.
It is clear that step c (determining the effectiveness of the results) is essentially no different from the evaluation itself. And from the step of determining the effectiveness of the results, it can only be revised over the entire previous step.
2. According to Glaser, the learning process must take the following procedures:
a. Formulating learning theory (instructional objectives) b. Deciding on the student’s starting situation
b. Determine learning procedures.
c. Performance appraisal
It is clear that evaluation (as in step d) is very necessary and is an inseparable part of the learning process. The same thing can also be read in the learning procedures proposed by the following experts.
3. According to Kemp
a. topc and general purposes.
b. student characteristics
c. learning objectives
d. Subject content.
e. Pre test
f. Teaching/ learning activities and resources
4. Menumt Gelder
a. Formulate instructional objectives.
b. Situation analysis.
c. Determine teacher activities, learning activities, subjects and learning aids.
5. According to the PPSI model (Instructional System Development Procedure):
a. Formulating goals
b. Develop evaluation tools
c. Formulating learning learning activities
d. Develop an activity program
e. Implementation of learning learning activities.