Welcome to softilmu, a simple blog that shares knowledge with sincerity. This time we will share knowledge about PERS, some of the main points that we will discuss are Definition of PRESS, PRESS Theories, and PRESS function. Hopefully the knowledge can be useful J
Etymologically, the word Press (Dutch) or Press (English), or Presse (France) all come from Latin, Perssare from the word Premere which means “Press” or “Print”. Terminologically, the press is the print mass media or print media.
Before exploring further the meaning of the press in general, it’s a good idea for all of you to listen to the opinions of the following experts:
1. Law no. 40 of 1999 concerning the Press
According to the law, the press is a social institution and vehicle for mass communication that carries out journalistic activities which include seeking, obtaining, possessing, storing, processing and conveying information in the form of writing, sound, images, sounds and images, as well as data and graphics as well as in other forms by using print media, electronic media, and all types of available channels.
The press is the fourth pillar of democracy (the fourth estate of democracy) and has an important role in building trust, credibility, and even government legitimacy.
- Press in a narrow sense, namely broadcasting thoughts, ideas, or news with the written word.
- The press in a broad sense, which includes all mass communication media that transmits one’s thoughts and feelings both in written and spoken words.
4. General Indonesian Dictionary
- Printing equipment for printing books or newspapers
- Tool for clamping or compacting
- Newspapers and magazines containing news
- People who work in the field of newspapers
5. Kustadi Suhandang
The press is the art or skill of finding, collecting, processing, compiling, and presenting news about events that occur daily in a beautiful way, in order to fulfill all the needs of the conscience of the audience.
In his book Four Theories of the press, he put forward the 4 biggest theories of the press, namely the autotarian, the libertarian, the social responsibility and the soviet communist theory. The four theories refer to one understanding of the press as an observer, teacher, and forum that conveys its views on many things that arise in the community.
The press as the extended man, which connects one place to another and one event to another at the same moment
The press is what forms public opinion through writing in newspapers. His opinion was able to burn the spirit of the fighters in fighting for the rights of the Indonesian nation during the Dutch colonial period.
The press is part of communication between humans (human communication), which means that the media is a channel or means in expanding and extending the reach of the process of delivering messages between humans.
From several expert opinions and laws, it can be concluded that Pers Media or facilities or institutions to carry out journalistic activities that form public opinion in any form so that they can help expand the reach of the process of delivering information and communication and have an important role in building trust, credibility, and even government legitimacy.
|UNDERSTANDING, FUNCTIONS, THEORY OF THE PRESS|
B. THEORIES OF THE PRESS (The Four Theories of Press)
Wilbur Scrhamm, Fred S. Siebert, and Theodore Peterson in their book entitled Four Theories of the Press stated that the press in today’s world can be categorized into four, following the theories:
1. Authoritarian Press Theory
This theory emerged in the authoritarian climate, at the end of the Renaissance in the 16th and 17th centuries, after the invention of the printing press. The press that supports and becomes an extension of government policies that are in power and serve the country. This theory emerged after the modern printing press was invented and became the basis for the development of the soviet communist press. This theory assumes that the king or ruler is the owner of the truth because they have a very close relationship with God. Truth does not come from society, but from wise people who guide and direct their followers. Therefore, anyone who opposes or doubts the ideology of the ruler can be punished. There are three ways that can be done to control the press, namely censoring material to be printed or broadcast, bribing editors to comply with the government’s wishes, and threatening the press with imprisonment.
Plato, who was one of the pioneers of authoritarian theory, thought that the country would progress if it was led and held by wise people such as judges. When there is a split that is vulnerable to occur, it can be minimized by that person. The press in this era has become very passive. They are only used as a tool to convey information about government policies to support its own leadership position. So that the press loses its function as a government supervisor and only serves the interests of the authorities. And only certain groups or people may have special permission from the authorities themselves.
2. Libertarian Press Theory
This theory is also called the theory of press freedom, where the press demands complete freedom. This theory reveals that humans are able to distinguish between right and wrong, good and bad. Truth no longer belongs to the authorities, but it is a human right to seek it. Therefore, here the press functions as a partner in seeking the truth by providing evidence and arguments for the basis for monitoring the government and determining attitudes. So that the press itself has a goal to find the truth, provide information, interpret, and entertain the public.
The emergence of this theory is also based on basic philosophical assumptions as follows:
Humans have rational thinking and have their own goals, and are able to make decisions. His abilities are used to think and remember, while his experience is used to make decisions.
Society has a goal to create human happiness and well-being. While its function is to advance the interests of members and create protection so that the community does not take over the main role and becomes an end in itself.
The state provides an environment for people and individuals so that they can use their abilities to achieve goals.
2d. The essence of knowledge and truth
Humans are given the ability to distinguish between right and wrong in order to obtain the truth. Meanwhile, the truth itself is something that can be found and shown to other humans for debate and through deliberation will be able to end the debate and the results can be accepted by reason.
There are three things that cause the press to strongly oppose the censorship process, namely censorship violates the natural human right to express freely, censorship can benefit one party at the expense of the public interest and censorship prevents people from seeking the truth.
3. Social Responsibility Press Theory
This theory emerged in the 20th century in the United States. The assumption underlying this theory is that freedom also contains a commensurate responsibility, where the press has the responsibility to inform, educate, and advance society. And here, the media play a role in indicating a reflection of diversity in society and also as access to see from various points of view. Thus, public opinion, ethics, and consumer reactions are the ones that control the performance of the press. In addition, it is not uncommon for conflicts to arise that can lead people to discussion forums to resolve a problem.
In the United States, the first amendment to the US constitution of 1774 prohibited any government or state from making rules that limit or impede press freedom. And the press freedom commission owned by the US has provided a list of materials that must be considered as the press’s obligation to the public, namely the existence of news that is informative, contains truth, accuracy, objectivity, and has a balanced or proportional composition.
There are six main tasks that must be carried out by the press in this regard, namely:
- Serve the political system by providing information, discussion, and debate within the community.
- Provide information so that people can take a stand on the phenomena that occur around them.
- Protecting individual rights by supervising the running of the government.
- Serving the economic system through ad serving to bring together sellers and buyers indirectly.
- Striving for their own costs so they don’t depend on certain people or groups.
4. The Communist Soviet Press Theory
This theory emerged when the Soviet Union was still standing, accompanied by the Marxist tradition. This theory assumes that in a society, people should not have different views, deliberation is a sign of weakness, and there is only one right view that can be met and defended, propagated, and promoted.
In fact, power is social and resides in the person of each person, hidden in social institutions, and radiated in the actions of society. However, the press itself is only used as a means of propaganda and agitation which is always related to party power and influence. So it is not possible to have private ownership of the press.
In addition to the four press theories expressed by Fred. S. Siebert, Theodore B. Peterson, and Wilbur Schram in their essay entitled “Four Theories of The Press”, which was published in 1965, there is also Willian A. Hachten who revealed that there are five press systems that apply in the world. This is expressed in his book entitled “The World News Prism”, which was published in 1981. The five press systems are as follows:
4. Western concept (a combination of libetarian system and social responsibility)
5. Development (a combination of authoritarian, communist, and socially responsible systems)
According to Mochtar Lubis, the press in developing countries has five functions of the press, namely:
- Unifying function
- Educational function
- Function of public watch dog or public interest
- Myth and mystic remover function
- Function as a forum to talk about political issues
The function of the press in general can be divided into several fields, namely:
namely through his printed works with all contents, either directly or indirectly, with the nature of their openness and helping the community to improve their culture.
Through the press, mutual understanding will grow or it can also be used by social institutions to foster contact between people in order to create mutual understanding and exchange views for the development and progress of human life.
Through certain rubrics and columns such as editorials, readers’ thoughts, corners and others, there is a space to provide views or thoughts to the audience.
4. The function of forming public opinion
The press tries to provide guidance and supervision to the public about correct behavior or behavior that is not desired by the public.
The press can take advantage of the surrounding circumstances as a selling point so that the press as a social institution can obtain maximum benefits from its production for the survival of the press institution itself.
The press provides and provides information about events that occur in the community, and people buy newspapers because they need information.
Well that’s the post this time about PERS, hopefully the knowledge can be useful. If there is still something you don’t understand, please ask friends via the comment box below, we will try to respond quickly and accurately. Thank you for visiting softscience, don’t forget to like and comment, okay? J