Welcome to softilmu, a blog about knowledge that is shared with sincerity. In this article, we will discuss about Menstruation (Menstruation). Some of the main points we will cover are Definition of Menstruation (Menstruation), Menstrual Cycle (Menstruation), Menstrual Phase (Menstruation), Menstrual Process (Menstruation), and Signs of Menstruation (Menstruation). Hopefully the knowledge can be useful.

A. DEFINITION OF MENSTRUATION (HAID)
Menstruation is bleeding that comes out of the uterus periodically due to the detachment of the innermost layer of the uterus.endometrium), which begins after 14 days of ovulation or ovum production. Menstruation lasts for approximately 7 days, which are arranged in a complex cycle. The menstrual cycle is fully influenced by the hormones produced by the body.
B. MENSTRUAL CYCLE (HAID)
Normal menstrual function is the result of the interaction between several organs, namely the hypothalamus, pituitary, and ovaries. The ovaries produce the hormones estrogen and progesterone.
Estrogen serves as the development and maintenance of female reproductive organs, as well as secondary sexual development, such as breasts. Estrogen plays an important role in changing the menstrual cycle.
Progesterone is a hormone that is important for preparing the endometrium which is the innermost mucous membrane that lines the uterus for implantation or implantation of an ovum that has been fertilized by a sperm. If pregnancy occurs, progesterone secretion plays an important role in the placenta and in maintaining a normal pregnancy.
In general, menstruation will take place every 28 days for ± 7 days. The duration of bleeding is about 3-5 days with the amount of blood lost about 30-40 cc. The peak bleeding is on the 2nd or 3rd day. Followed by the proliferative phase or an increase in the number of about 6-8 days.
C. MENSTRUAL PHASE (HAID)
MENSTRUAL CYCLE

a. Endometrial Cycle

The endometrial cycle consists of four phases, namely:
In this phase, the endometrium is separated from the uterine wall accompanied by bleeding and the only layer that is still intact is the stratum basale. On average, this phase lasts 3-6 days. At the beginning of the menstrual phase, estrogen, progesterone, LH (Lutenizing Hormone) levels are at their lowest during the cycle, and FSH (Follicle Stimulating Hormone) levels begin to increase.
The proliferative phase is a phase of rapid growth that lasts from about day 5 to day 14 of the menstrual cycle. The endometrial surface returns to normal about four days or before the bleeding stops. In this phase the endometrium grows to be 8-10 times as thick as it was originally, which ends at ovulation. The proliferative phase depends on the stimulation of estrogen from the ovarian follicle.
This phase begins on day 14 of the menstrual cycle until three days before the next menstrual period. What is meant by secretion here is the release of an ovum (ovary) from the ovary, this process is also known as ovulation. At the end of the secretory phase, the fully mature endometrium reaches its peak in thickness like a thick, smooth velvet. The endometrium becomes rich with blood and glandular secretions.
Implantation or nidation of the fertilized ovum occurs about 7 to 10 days after ovulation. If fertilization and implantation do not occur, the corpus luteum, which produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone, shrinks. As estrogen and progesterone levels decrease rapidly, the spiral arteries or blood vessels that supply blood to the endometrium become smaller, resulting in the blood supply to the endometrium being stopped and necrosis or tissue death occurs. The layers separate from the base layer and menstrual bleeding begins again.
Ovulation occurs simultaneously with increased levels of the hormone estrogen which inhibits the release of FSH.follicle stimulating hormone), then the pituitary (hormone-producing gland) secretes LH (lutenizing hormone).
FSH is a hormone which stimulates follicular growth. Inside a woman’s ovary, a follicle is a structure that contains egg cells. FSH is an important hormone needed for the fertilization process, while LH plays a role in estrogen production.
Increased levels of LH stimulate the release of secondary oocytes. Secondary oocytes are the result of the ovulation process, oocytes are germ cells in females that are formed after the first meiosis process.
Primitive primary follicles contain immature oocytes (primordial cells). Before ovulation, one to 30 follicles begin to mature in the ovary under the influence of FSH and estrogen. The spike/increase in LH levels prior to ovulation affects selected follicles. Within the selected follicle, the oocyte matures and ovulation occurs, the empty follicle begins to transform into a corpus luteum. The corpus luteum is a yellow tissue in the ovary that is formed by a follicle that has matured and released an egg. The corpus luteum reaches its full function 8 days after ovulation, and produces the hormones estrogen and progesterone. If fertilization does not occur by sperm, the corpus luteum decreases and hormone levels decrease. So that the endometrial lining can not survive and eventually shed.
OVULATION CYCLE

D. SIGNS OF MENSTRUAL (HAID)

Through the menstrual cycle, signs appear in someone who is menstruating, which is commonly referred to as premenstrual syndrome or PMS. Physical, psychological and emotional symptoms that are often experienced or reported are bloating, breast swelling and tenderness, tension, depression, mood swings and feelings of out of control. Reason Premenstrual Syndromecannot be known with certainty. However, there are several theories that state that the cause of PMS is one of the factors in the nutritional status of women. Other causes are due to an imbalance of the hormones estrogen and progesterone, psychological factors, social problems, and impaired serotonin function. Serotonin is a chemical substance that functions to deliver messages in the body that describe a person’s feelings of joy, when serotonin levels are disturbed, there will be changes in a person’s mood.
Symptoms that can also be experienced by women at the time of ovulation are:
  • Cervical Mucus Changes, When the body is about to release an egg for fertilization, it prepares a friendly environment for sperm. Cervical fluid becomes wet and elastic like egg whites, making it easier for sperm to move.
    spotting, Some women experience spotting before ovulation. Some theories say that spotting is caused by an egg released by a follicle during ovulation.
    Cramps (Pain) , pain or cramping on one side (only on one side of the pelvis), the cramping pain feels similar to PMS. The main difference between cramping and PMS is that it cramps on only one side of the pelvis. These cramps are caused by the egg being released by the follicle.
    Hormonal changes in urine and saliva (saliva)The increase in the LH hormone before ovulation can be detected in addition to urine, but also in saliva (saliva), which will show a pattern like fern leaves.

    Body Temperature Change, Record the temperature every waking up on a digital thermometer. This is called basal body temperature. When you are close to ovulation, your body temperature dips followed by a rapid rise, you will feel a little warm. This spike in body temperature is a sign that ovulation has occurred.

So that’s our discussion this time about Menstruation, hopefully the knowledge can be useful. If there is still something you don’t understand, please ask friends via the comment box below. Thank you for visiting, don’t forget to follow and comment.

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