Alright buddy, in this article we will discuss about Definition, Benefits, and Types of Hydrolysis, let’s just get into the discussion.
If an acid molecule reacts with a base molecule it will form a salt and water. This reaction is referred to as a neutralization reaction. However, basically the salt solution is not always neutral, but can also be acidic or basic. To explain the nature of the salt solution, the concept of hydrolysis is used. The following is a table of several types of strong acids, strong bases, and salts with their constituent acid-base components.
A chemical reaction that occurs between water molecules and salt, where the salt component (cation or anion) consisting of a weak acid or weak base will form H ions3O+=(H+) as positive ions and ions (OH–) as negative ions. If the hydrolysis reaction produces H . ions3O+then it means that the solution is acidic, but if the hydrolysis reaction produces OH ions– then the solution is alkaline.
Mathematically, the chemical formula can be written in the following reaction.
M+ + H2O ️ MOH + H+
While the anions react to become:
X–+ H2O ️ HX+ OH–
So, it can be concluded that hydrolysis is the decomposition of salt by water to produce an acid and a base. Hydrolysis reactions occur when certain ionic compounds, such as salts, acids, and certain bases dissolve in water.
If viewed from the salt-forming components and whether or not the salt can be described when reacted with water, the hydrolysis reaction can be distinguished as follows.
Partial hydrolysis is when a salt is reacted with water, only one/part of the ions undergo a hydrolysis reaction, while the others do not. The constituent components of the salt that undergo this partial hydrolysis reaction are a weak acid and a strong base or vice versa.
Total hydrolysis is the decomposition reaction of all salts by water, in which the salt components consist of a weak acid and a weak base.
Based on the types of ions produced when the salt is dissolved in water, the hydrolysis process can be divided into the following types.
When a salt consisting of a weak acid and a strong base is reacted with water molecules, these salts will only be partially hydrolyzed in water and will produce basic ions (OH).–). In other words, what is hydrolyzed is the anion of a weak acid while the cation of a strong base is not hydrolyzed.
CH3COONa(I) → CH3COO–(I)+ Na+ (I)
CH3COO– + H2O CH3COOH + OH–
Na++ H2O → no reaction occurs
From the example above, it is clear that CH3COO– who actsas anion of weak acid hydrolyzed to form OH– when reacted with water molecules (H2O) while Na+ which act as cations of strong bases do not hydrolyze when reacted with water molecules. In conclusion, salt with components that form a weak acid and a strong base, when reacted with water will partially hydrolyze and produce basic ions.
Similar to the hydrolysis reaction between a salt with a molecular component of a weak acid and a strong base is reacted with water molecules, if a salt with a component of a strong acid and a weak base is dissolved into a water molecule, it will also undergo partial hydrolysis and produce acidic ions (H+). This happens because only the cations of the weak base are hydrolyzed, while the anions of the strong acid are not hydrolyzed.
NH4Cl → NH4+ + Cl–
NH4+ + H2O NH4OH + H+
Cl– + H2O → no reaction occurs
Based on the example above, it can be explained that NH4+ which acts as a weak base is hydrolyzed to produce an acidic ion, namely H+. While Cl– which as a strong acid anion does not hydrolyze.
5. Hydrolyzed Cations and Anions
When a salt with a weak acid and weak base is reacted with water molecules, it will undergo total hydrolysis. This can happen because cations from weak bases and anions from weak acids can be completely hydrolyzed. This hydrolysis reaction produces H . ions+ or OH–.
CH3COONH4 → CH3COO– + NH4+
CH3COO– + H2O CH3COOH + OH–
NH4+ + H2O NH4OH + H+
The example above explains that the two components of the CH . salt3COO– (anion of a weak acid) and NH4+ (cations from weak bases) can be completely hydrolyzed, each successively producing basic ions (OH .).–) and acidic ions (H+).
“It is necessary to know that a salt with a strong acid and a strong base which is reacted with water molecules will not undergo hydrolysis, in other words the reaction is neutral. This event can occur when a salt containing alkali metal ions or alkaline earth metal ions (except Be2+) and the conjugate base of a strong acid (for example, Cl-, Br-, and NO3-) is reacted with water molecules to produce a neutral solution.
Hydrolysis reaction is a chemical reaction used to neutralize a mixture of acids and bases to produce water and salt. The hydrolysis process has a big role in the implementation of various important processes and needs in everyday life.
The following is a further description of some of the uses of the hydrolysis process.
The hydrolysis reaction between acid and base molecules reacted with water to form a salt with the chemical formula NaCl. NaCl is a salt used in the kitchen of housewives as a salty taste in food.
In agriculture, hydrolysis reactions are used to adjust soil pH to the plants grown. Through the hydrolysis reaction will get a type of fertilizer that is not too acidic or alkaline. The chemical molecules that are often used to lower the pH of fertilizers are solid pellets (NH .).4)2SO4. When the salt is reacted in water, the NH . ions4+will be hydrolyzed in the soil to form NH3 and H+ which is acidic.
The hydrolysis reaction between the salt formed from HOCl which is a weak acid and NaOH which is a strong base with water will hydrolyze HOCl to produce OH ions.– which is alkaline. While NaoH as a strong base is not hydrolyzed. The salt formed by combining the two acids and bases is NaOCl. This salt is one of the materials used in the manufacture of bayclin or sunklin to whiten our clothes.
Hydrolysis reactions have an important role in the breakdown of food into easily absorbed nutrients. Most of the organic compounds in food do not react easily with water, so a catalyst is needed to allow this process to continue. Organic catalysts that help with reactions in living organisms are known as enzymes. This enzyme works by applying the concept of hydrolysis.
The hydrolysis reaction plays an important role in the rock weathering process. This process is important in soil formation, and makes essential minerals available to plants. Various silicate minerals, such as feldspar, undergo slow hydrolysis reactions with water, forming clays and silts, along with soluble compounds.
The hydrolysis reaction has a role in water purification. Drinking water purification by PAM applies the principle of hydrolysis, which uses aluminum phosphate compounds that undergo total hydrolysis.
So, it can be concluded that the hydrolysis reaction occurs when several ionic compounds, such as acids, bases, and salts are dissolved in water molecules and can produce varying properties whether they are acidic, basic, or neutral. This difference in properties becomes a benchmark in analyzing the important role of the hydrolyzed salt in the life of living things.
This is our article this time about Definition, Benefits, and Types of Hydrolysis, hopefully it can add to your knowledge and be useful. J