Definition and History of Microprocessors

There are three definitions of microprocessor:

  • Microprocessor
  • Microcomputer
  • Microcontroller

MICROPROCESSOR

  • Definition: A microprocessor is a chip that contains an ALU (arithmetic-logic unit) circuit, a CU (control unit) circuit,
  • Microprocessor registers are also known as CPU (Central Processing Unit)
  • ALU: provides CU processing functions that control processor functions
  • Register: temporary storage in the microprocessor

MICROCOMPUTER

• Definition: A microcomputer is an interconnection between a microprocessor (CPU) with main memory and input-output interface (I/O interface) which is carried out using a bus interconnection system.

MICROCONTROLLER

• Microcontroller Chip which contains an interconnection system between the Microprocessor, RAM, ROM, I/O interface, and several peripherals. Microcontroller is also called On-chip-Peripheral.

History of Microprocessors

A Micro Processor – also known as a CPU or Central Processing Unit – is a complete computing machine that is manufactured on a single chip.

The first microprocessor was the Intel 4004 which was introduced in 1971. Prior to the 4004 engineers made computers from a collection of chips or from different components (transistors linked together). And the 4004 was one of the brains of the first portable electronic calculator.

Bnerikyt is the development of microprocessors from year to year:

• 1972 : 8008 . Microprocessor

• 1974 : 8080 . Microprocessor

• 1978 : 8086-8088 . Microprocessor

• 1982 : Microprocessor 286

• 1985 : Intel386™ Microprocessor

• 1989 : DX CPU Intel486™ Microprocessor

Microprocessor Type Category:

• Material Technology

• Data Bus Width

• FactoryMaker

• Generation

• Instruction Type

Functions of components in the microprocessor:

a. Registers A, B, and C consist of latch strands composed of flip-flop strands. Address Latch only registers A, B, and C

b. Program counter: a latch with the added ability to increment a number, and can also reset to zero if commanded.

c. The ALU works like a simple 8-bit adder: it performs addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division operations on 8-bit values.

d. Test register: An ALU can normally compare two numbers and determine whether they are equal in value or one is greater than the other.

e. Tri-state buffer: can pass and break its output (like a switch).

f. The instruction register and instruction decoder are responsible for controlling all other components.

Several Types Of MicroprocessorsOn The Basis Of TechnologyMaterials
Processor Cycle Consumption Technology
Instruction Power
1. NTEL 8008 PMOS 420mW 10us
2. NTEL 8085 NMOS 400mW 1.3us
3. INTEL 80286 HCMOS 2500mW 0.1us
4. RCA 1802CC MOS 400mW 6.4us
5. MOTOROLA MC6800N MOS 600mW 2.0us
6. MOTOROLA MC68000 HCMO S1750mW 0.08us
7. MOS Technology 6502 NMOS 250mW 3.0us
8. National 32032 HCMOS 1000mW 0.1us
9. ZilogZ80 NMOS 400mW 1.3us

How the Microprocessor Works

The microprocessor works with assembly language. Execution of all instructions is done in this language. Although the microprocessor’s job is actually much more complicated, basically there are only 3 jobs to do

• Using the ALU, the microprocessor can perform arithmetic operations (addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division). Modern microprocessors have floating point processors that can perform very complex operations to help the CPU.

• The microprocessor can move data from a memory location to another device and vice versa.

• The microprocessor can make a decision and jump to a new set of instructions, based on that decision.

Microprocessor organization

This microprocessor is sometimes referred to as the ‘brain’ of a personal computer, and is responsible for processing the instructions that make up computer software. The so-called microprocessor is sometimes the ‘brain’ of the personal computer, responsible for the articles and instructions that make up computer software. It houses the central processing unit, usually referred to as the CPU, and as such is a very important part of the home PC. The central home processing unit is usually referred to as the CPU and the Procurator because it is therefore not a crucially important home PC. However, how many people really understand how the chip itself works? However, how many people really understand how the chip itself works?

This tutorial aims to provide an introduction to the various parts of the microprocessor, and to teach the basics of the architecture and how the CPU works in three specific sections: On certain CPUs Three Parts are not:CPU Structure This section, using a simplified model of a central processing unit as an example, takes you through the role of each of the major constituent parts of the CPU. This section, using a simple model of a central processing unit as an example, will take you through the roles of each of the major constituent parts of the CPU. It also looks more closely at each part, and examines how they are constructed and how they perform their role within the microprocessor. It also takes a closer look at each of the parts, and examines how they are constructed and how they perform their role in the microprocessor.

Execution Instruction Execution

Once you are familiar with the various elements of a processor, this section looks at how they work together to process and execute programs. It looks at how the various instructions that make up the program are recognized, together with the processes and actions performed during the instruction execution cycle itself. After the names and returns are familiar with the various elements of the processor section, there is a post on how they work for this section, using a simple model of a central processing unit as an example, will take you through the role of each of the major constituent parts of the CPU. Parts do not know what opinion, using the same transovarial article uk and implementing the program.

This initial post shows how the various instructions that are recognized form the program, together with the transovarial actions performed and performed during the execution of the instruction cycle itself. Next Features – More features

Now that the basics are covered, this discussion will examine further advances in the field of microprocessor architecture that have occurred in recent years. Now that it has been put under discussion, the initials will review the further advances in the field of microprocessor architecture that have taken place in the last few years. Explanations of techniques such as pipelining and HyperThreading are provided, along with a look at cache memory and trends in CPU architecture. Explanation of Pipelining and Hyper Threading techniques as provided together, cache memory there is a post on new articles and trends in CPU architecture.

Each section also closes with a multiple choice quiz with which you can test your knowledge, while some also contain interactive animations in order to enhance your learning experience. The related sections are still ongoing. Subscriptions are still ongoing. Subscribe to New Articles. New Articles Multiple choice quizzes that can test your knowledge of Names and Returns, while some also contain interactive animations in order to enhance the Learning experience for Names and Returns. This animation is in Macromedia Flash format, and will require Flash Player to be installed on your computer. The initials are animated in Macromedia Flash format and will require the Flash Player to be installed on the computer and back. Otherwise, please visit the Macromedia website to download and install the browser plug-in. If not, please visit the Macromedia website for articles and downloads to install the browser plug-in.

The first part of this tutorial deals with the structure of the central processing unit. Part do not know what the first opinion? Subscribe to USING’s New Articles Central processing unit structure tutorial. Please click on the button marked with an arrow next to below to continue. Please select the arrow button marked New Article in this Next to the bottom stream for the article to continue.

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