COMPOST AGRICULTURAL ORGANIC WASTE TO PRODUCE

HEALTHY AND ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY ORGANIC FERTILIZER

Efforts to restore sustainable soil fertility can be done by using organic fertilizer agents which are currently in vogue. In this case, agricultural organic waste is an important source of organic fertilizer for our agricultural lands. Agricultural organic waste known around us can be in the form of crop residues, livestock manure, feed residues, media used for mushroom cultivation, garden waste and so on. Organic materials are important organic fertilizers for the community to improve soil conditions. However, the use of organic matter as organic fertilizer today must also pay attention to various things so as not to harm the environment.

Keywords: Composting-Organic Agricultural Waste-Organic-Friendly Fertilizer

Environment

Agricultural Organic Waste

Agricultural organic waste that is known around us can be in the form of plant remains, livestock manure, feed residue, media used for mushroom cultivation, garden waste and so on. These organic materials when used as fertilizer to improve soil conditions by farmers are often grouped under the terms manure, green manure, and compost. The types of organic materials derived from agricultural waste have specific characteristics in terms of physical, chemical and biological aspects. Since they are not the same, the effect on the soil environment when used as fertilizer or amendments is certainly different. Although the characteristics are not the same, in general the use of organic materials provides various advantages.

Organic matter is a source of nitrogen (90-95%) in unfertilized soils. Besides that. Organic matter can be the main source of available phosphorus and sulfur when humus is available in the soil (2% or more). Through the activity of micro-organisms, organic matter supplies directly or indirectly the cements that form soil aggregates; particularly long chains of sugars known as polysaccharides. Organic matter also contributes to the cation exchange capacity of approximately 30-70% of the total CEC. Although organic materials provide many benefits, their use in the field must also pay attention to the condition of each type of organic material derived from various kinds of agricultural organic waste. Moreover, the improper use of organic fertilizers can also pollute the environment.

Composting

Composting is a method that has long been used to manage solid organic waste, especially from agricultural activities with the main target of producing organic fertilizer in the form of compost. Along with the increasing population, the types of organic waste they produce are also quite large, as well as various types. Composting is considered to be able to easily adapt to these different organic material conditions. However, the choice of technology

1. Composting can process various fractions of organic matter in the form of waste, can control the smell of forage waste, urban organic waste or industrial waste (Storm, 1985).

2. Composting is also very efficient as a method of treating sludge for the production of water purification stations, the number of which is increasing day by day and has caused its own problems for urban residents today. The change of the sludge into a stable material and reduced volume is the case (Nakasaki et al., 1985).

3. Composting makes it possible to treat animal manure which produces humic materials and biological elements which when used on agricultural soils can prevent soil and plant damage compared to direct distribution (Beffa et al., 1994).

4. Composting is an aerobic heating process in which during the thermophilic phase the temperature increases to a temperature point sufficient to nourish the material being composted so that a reliable production is obtained (Beffa et al., 1996).

5. Composting is not only a way to reduce human waste production and recycle nutrients, but also produces compost which is very useful for conserving soil resources while at the same time as a growth medium (Klamer and Bath, 2000).

6. Handling solid organic waste is increasingly difficult and very expensive, especially in an environment where the population is very dense. In the end, composting has an economic purpose. So it should not be forgotten to mention that composting is the easiest processing method to implement and very efficient (Smars et al., 2001).

Compost, organic fertilizer, healthy and environmentally friendly

Addition of fresh organic matter to the soil should be avoided as it results in ecosystem changes as plants develop. If the new organic matter is partially degraded, the degradation will be continued by the soil microflora which produces intermediate products that are not suitable for plant growth.

The addition of compost to the soil can modify the physical, chemical and

biology in the long term. Gobat et al. (1998) provides a list of modifications that are used in composting:

a. Water retention capacity and availability to plants increases as does structural stability

b. Through humics in compost the cation exchange capacity is also increased. Soil is able to bind more soil minerals which promotes mineral availability for roots and avoids loss of ions

c. Mature compost is an important and diverse medium for the community of mesophyll microorganisms. This will increase the enzyme activity significantly

d. When soil microorganisms mineralize, compost liberates CO2. The CO2 concentration increases not only in the soil atmosphere but also in the air blanket above the soil and this is beneficial for the photosynthetic activity of low-level plants.

e. The use of compost improves the quality of cultivated plants because of the expansion in the soil, which is certainly beneficial for plants

f. In general, compost contributes to suppressing soil parasites that stimulate the development of antagonistic organism activity (competition, antibiotic secretion, hyperparasitism).

g. Compost does not kill pathogens but is controlled by competing beneficial microorganisms that thrive and are active (Ozores-Hampton et al., 1994).

We can also see the role of compost on soil porosity, its ability to absorb toxic materials and pesticides, plant organic nutrients. Soil is also a complex and living environment where interactions occur between elements between plants and the soil or in the soil itself (Mustin, 1987). .

Addition of fresh organic matter to the soil should be avoided as it results in ecosystem changes as plants develop. If the new organic matter is partially degraded, the degradation will be continued by the soil microflora which produces intermediate products that are not suitable for plant growth. Conversely, the C/N ratio of organic matter that is too high will lead to the phenomenon of nitrogen starvation (Bernal et al., 1998).

References

Beffa, T., Blanc, M., Lyon, P.-F., Vogt, G., Marchiani, M., Lott Fischer, J. and Aragno, M.,

1996. Isolation of Thermus strains from hot compost (60-80°C). Applied and

Environmental Microbiology 62 : 1723-1727

Bernal, MP, Sanchez-Monedero, MA, Paredes C., Roig, A., 1998. Carbon mineralization

from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 69: 175-189

Bernal, MP, Sanchez-Monedero, MA, Paredes C., Roig, A., 1998. Carbon mineralization

from organic wastes at different composting stages during their incubation with soil. Agriculture Ecosystem and Environment 69: 175-189

Bertoldi, M. de, Vallini, G. & Pera, A., 1983. The biology of composting: a review. Waste

Management & Research 1: 157-176

Chen, Sh.H., 1994. Survey on municipal domestic wastes composting technology in mainland China. Chin. J. Environ. Sci., 15(1): 53-56.

Dalzell, HW Biddlestone; K; R. Gray and K. Thurairajan. 1987. Soil Management: Compost production and Use in Tropical and Subtropical Environments. FAO-UN, Rome.

Gaur, AC 1982. A Manual of Rural Composting. Project Field Document No. 15.

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