CHILLI CULTIVATION
I.1 Introduction
Chili (Capsicum Annum) is one of the horticultural commodities that have important economic value in Indonesia. Chili comes from the American continent to be precise in Peru and spread to the countries of the Americas, Europe and Asia, including Indonesia. One of the problems in increasing the production and quality of chili is the attack of plant pest organisms (OPT) that occurs from nursery to post-harvest. Among the main pests that often cause losses in chili farming are disease attacks with pathogens / causes from the viral class. The yellow virus disease attack on chili plants has caused huge losses to farmers in chili-central areas on the islands of Sumatra and Java in the last 5 years, because as a result of the geminivirus attack, chili production has decreased to far from normal production, which then has an impact on soaring chili prices. on the market. Chili (Capsicum Annum Var longum) is one of the horticultural commodities that have important economic value in Indonesia, because the fruit is not only used as vegetables and cooking spices but also has the capacity to increase farmers’ income, as an industrial raw material, has export opportunities, creates job opportunities and as a source of income. source of vitamin C. Irian Jaya chili plant area and production in 1998 was 4,104 ha with a production of 8565 tons/ha.

I.2 Chili Cultivation
I.2.1 Definition of Chili
Chili or red chili or lombok (Javanese) are fruits and plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. The fruit can be classified as either a vegetable or a spice, depending on how it is used. As a condiment, the spicy chili fruit is very popular in Southeast Asia as a food flavor enhancer. (Anonymous, 2012).

Chili Plant Classification
Kingdom: Plantae (Plants)
Subkingdom: Tracheobionta (vascular plants)
Super Division: Spermatophyta (Produce seeds)
Division: Magnoliophyta (flowering plants)
Class: Magnoliopsida (two pieces / dicots)
Sub Class : Asteridae
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae (the eggplant tribe)
Genus: Capsicum
Species : Capsicum annum L.
I.2.2 Growing conditions
1. Land
Soil textured crumbs / loose and rich in organic matter
The degree of acidity (pH) of the soil between 5.5-7.0
The ground is not muddy / there is a puddle
Open cropping land or no shade
2. Climate
Rainfall 1500-2500 mm per year with an even distribution.
Air temperature 16o – 320 C
From flowering to fruit ripening, the sun is sufficient (10-12 hours).
I.2.3 Cultivation Technique
According to Hardiyanto (2011) chili cultivation techniques include:
1. Nursery
The need for seeds per hectare of planting is 150-300 grams with a growth rate of more than 90%.
Prepare seedling media from planting, sand and manure in a ratio of 1: 1 made beds as high as 20 cm, 1 m wide and 3-5 m long and provided with shade from straw and coconut reeds.
Spread the seeds evenly or spread them in a row with a distance of 5 cm between a scissor and cover with a thin layer of soil and then watered. Keep the soil moist so that it stays good and the seeds continue to grow.
After the seedlings are 10 days old, scraping is carried out to facilitate planting and prevent death when the plants are transferred. As ocher can be used banana leaves, coconut leaves or plastic bags. Cockroached seeds are placed under the shade of the nursery.
About five days before the seedlings are transferred, the shade in the nursery is opened or reduced so that the seedlings get used to the sun.

2. Land Management
One week before planting the land is ready, including hoeing/plowing and making beds
The size of the bed is 30 cm high, 1-1.5 m wide and as long as needed, place it with a distance between beds of 30 cm
Apply fertilizer, mulch from plastic can be installed after fertilizing manure and if used mulch from plant waste such as dang-slang and plant remains can be given after planting seeds.
3. Planting
Seedlings can be transferred at the age of 28-35 days after sowing with 5-7 leaves.
Choose seedlings that are tall and of uniform size. Plant the seedlings in an upright position and press a little soil around the stems of the plant.
Water the plants sufficiently after planting and the next watering is done every 2 days if there is no rain.
4. Fertilization
Fertilization is given with the following doses and applications:
Manure 20 tons/ha
Application a week before planting
Urea 150 kg/ha, 3,6,9 weeks after planting with a dose of 1/3 each application
ZA 400 kg/ha. 3,6,9 weeks after planting with a dose of 1/3 each application
TSP – 36 :150 kg/ha, application a week before planting
KCL : 100 kg/ha, 3,6,9 weeks after planting with a dose of 1/3 each application
To further increase yields, liquid tress supplementary fertilizer at a dose of 500 1/ha, at the age of 20, 30, 40 and 50 days after planting.

5. Maintenance
Do embroidery if there are dead plants in the morning/evening.
Installation of water can be done at the time of planting or after the plant is 30 to 50 cm high and tied directly, the length of the stake is + 1.5 m.
Weed the plant before fertilizing if there are weeds.
6. Pest and Disease Control
Pests and diseases that attack chili planthoppers are lice, peach leaf, caterpillars, armyworms, trips pests, fruit rot, leaf spot and stem rot. Pest control can be done by spraying natural pesticides (See article on natural pesticides)
7. Harvest
If the chili plants are fruitful and ripe enough, immediately pick the fruit in the morning. Chili fruit that is good for harvesting is fruit that is not too young but also not too ripe. After picking, immediately store the chilies in a dry and cool place.
Harvest the chilies, if the color of the chilies is more than 60% (the color of the fruit is still black).
Harvesting can be done every 3-5 days continuously until the plants do not produce
When harvesting, include the fruit stalks, do it selectively and carefully so that the flowers, fruit, and stems do not fall out / damage.

I.3 Conclusion
a) Chili or red chili or lombok (Javanese) are fruits and plants belonging to the genus Capsicum. The fruit can be classified as either a vegetable or a spice, depending on how it is used.
b) Chili growing conditions
Soil texture
Climate
c) Cultivation Technique
Nursery
tillage
Planting
Fertilization
Maintenance
Disease pest control
Harvest

References
Anonymous (a).2012 chili plants. http://huderi.wordpress.com/tag/budidaya-chili/.
Hadiyanto, Iskandar. 2005. Chili Planting. Balai Pustaka (Persero). Jakarta. 35 ha
Martodireso, Sudadi and Widada Agus Suryanto.2011. Fertilization Technology Breakthrough in the Era of Organic Agriculture. Canisius. VII print. Yogyakarta. 78h.

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