One of the most important parts of human life is marriage. And for people in South Sulawesi, especially the Bugis Makassar and people in Indonesia in general, marriage is the union of two large families of the bride and groom. No wonder the Bugis Makassar traditional marriage involves not only the nuclear family of the bride and groom, but also the entire extended family, so it is not uncommon for brothers, sisters, uncles and aunts, as well as elders to be involved in preparing the bride’s wedding.
Marriage ceremonies in the South Sulawesi area are heavily influenced by sacred rituals with the aim that the marriage runs smoothly and the bride and groom receive blessings from God. The procedure for the traditional Bugis Makassar wedding ceremony goes through several stages, namely:
A secret investigation by the prospective groom to find out the background of the prospective bride.
This event is the official proposal of the prospective groom to the prospective bride. In the past, the process of asking for a proposal could be carried out in several phases and it could take months to reach an agreement.
After the wedding ceremony, an appa’nasa/patenreada is conducted, which is to determine the wedding day. In addition to determining the wedding day, it is also agreed on the amount of the dowry and spending money. The amount of the dowry and spending money is determined according to the girl’s social class or strata and the ability of the man’s family.
Appanai Leko Lompo (Erang-erang)
After the proposal is officially accepted, then an engagement called A’bauang is carried out, namely when the man’s family delivers the passio/passiko or Pattere ada (Bugis). It is considered a binder and is usually a ring. The procession of delivering passio is accompanied by delivering betel nut leaves called Leko Caddi. However, due to time considerations, now this event is held in conjunction with the Patenre Ada or Appa’nasa events.
The steam bath event performed by the bride and groom.
Appasili Bunting (Cemme Mapepaccing)
The ceremonial activities consist of pregnant appasili, a’bubu, and pregnant appakanre. The appasili pregnancy procession is almost similar to the siraman in the Javanese wedding tradition. This event is intended as a self-cleaning physically and mentally so that when the bride and groom navigate the household ark, they will receive protection from the Almighty and be protected from all kinds of dangers. This event was followed by Macceko/A’bubu or shaving the fine hair around the forehead by Anrong Bunting (makeup artist). The goal is that the dadasa or black decoration on the forehead worn by the prospective bride can be attached properly. After it was over, it was continued with the Appakanre Bunting event or the bribery of the bride and groom carried out by the pregnant Anrong and the prospective bride’s parents. Bribes from parents to the prospective bride is a symbol that the responsibility of parents to the child has ended and has been transferred to the prospective husband of the prospective bride.
This ceremony is a ritual of applying henna leaves to the hands of the prospective bride. Henna leaves have magical properties and symbolize purity. Before the wedding, a girlfriend’s night is usually held or Wenni Mappaci (Bugis) or Akkorontigi (Makassar) which means the night to purify oneself by placing a collision of henna leaves into the hands of the bride and groom. People who are asked to put henna leaves are people who have a good social standing and have a lasting and happy household. Mappaci night is carried out before the wedding ceremony and is held at the home of each prospective bride and groom.
This event is a marriage ceremony and is the culmination of a series of Bugis-Makassar traditional wedding ceremonies. The prospective groom is escorted to the prospective bride’s house called Simorong (Makassar) or Menre’kawing (Bugis). Nowadays, it is carried out in conjunction with the Appanai Leko Lompo procession (offerings). Because it was done simultaneously, the group consisted of two groups, namely the group carrying the Leko Lompo (offerings) and the group of the prospective groom with his family and invitees.
This procession is a procession uniting the two brides. After the marriage contract is completed, the groom is escorted to the bride’s room. In the Bugis-Makassarese tradition, the door to the bride’s room is usually locked tightly. Then there was a short dialogue between the groom’s introduction and the doorkeeper of the bride’s room. After the groom is allowed to enter, then a Mappasikarawa event (touching each other) is held. After that, the bride and groom sat side by side on the bed to take part in several events such as the installation of a seven-piece sarong guided by an indo botting (traditional guide). This implies that the groom has been accepted by the bride’s family.
Alleka pregnant (Marolla)
This event is often referred to as the in-law download event. The day after the wedding, the bride and groom accompanied by several family members were escorted to the house of the groom’s parents. This group brought some gifts in return for the groom. The bride carries a sarong for the groom’s parents and siblings. This event is called Makkasiwiang.